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7 Days To Drink Less Online Alcohol Reduction Program

7 Days To Drink Less Online Alcohol Reduction Program

Steel Bite Protocol Review

Steel Bite Protocol Review

Cure for TMJ, bruxing and Tooth Grinding Review

Cure for TMJ, bruxing and Tooth Grinding Review

Infatuation Scripts Review

Infatuation Scripts Review

One Minute Weight Loss Review

One Minute Weight Loss Review

Completing the Jigsaw Review

Completing the Jigsaw Review

Slim Belly Fix Review

Slim Belly Fix Review

Neuroactiv6 Brain and Energy Support Supplement Review

Neuroactiv6 Brain and Energy Support Supplement Review

Cat Spray No More Review

Cat Spray No More Review

Panic Miracle System Review

Panic Miracle System Review

Natural Anti-Aging Shortcuts Review

Natural Anti-Aging Shortcuts Review

The Mindful Reset Review

The Mindful Reset Review

Articles

Neuromuscular Control

The mechanical response of muscles also strongly depends on how the muscles are activated. The neuromuscular control of movement is an active area of study where biomechanical research methods have been particularly useful. This section will summarize the important structures and their functions in the activation of muscles to regulate muscle forces and movement. The Functional Unit of Control Motor Units The coordination and regulation of movement is of considerable interest to many scholars....

Qualitative Analysis Human Movement Diagram

A free-body diagram of a person quietly standing. The major vertical forces acting on the person gravity and ground reaction force are illustrated, while horizontal forces are small enough to ignore. Figure 2.6. A free-body diagram of a person quietly standing. The major vertical forces acting on the person gravity and ground reaction force are illustrated, while horizontal forces are small enough to ignore. body is our first example of what in mechanics is called a free-body...

Countercurrent Distillation Rectification

The equipment for continuous distillation can only separate one stage in the equilibrium diagram. Countercurrent distillation, also called rectification, has found widespread application with normal pressure and coarse vacuum distillation when complex mixtures or components with small relative volatility factor are to be separated. The fundamentals are discussed above 2.1.3.3.2 the technical side will be dealt with here 41-45 . Laboratory equipment for the two important types is depicted in...

Endometriosis and your pelvic cavity

Endometriosis that implants on the peritoneum in the pelvic cavity see Figure 3-5 can cause severe inflammation that leads to adhesions or scar tissue. These adhesions can then cause all these organs and tissues the uterus, ovaries, tubes, intestines, and bladder to stick to each other so they don't move in the usual manner. This restriction of movement and the inflammation due to endometriosis cause the pain or discomfort. In addition, these same adhesions can make the intestines, bladder, and...

Food and Drug Administration Perspective on Regulation of Pharmaceutical Excipients

Division of Drug Information HFD-240 , Center for Drug Evaluation and Research CDER , United States Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland, U.S.A. The Food and Drug Administration FDA is generally recognized as one of the, if not the, premier therapeutic agent gatekeepers among nations. Consequently, the pharmaceutical and medical library stacks are laden with journals and manuals devoted to drug development and instructions on how to run the FDA gauntlet to reach the jackpot of drug...

Paraphimosis and Phimosis

Paraphimosis is a frequently encountered condition in the pediatric emergency department. Because of their age and lack of understanding, children have a tendency to neglect to reduce their foreskin following retraction at the time of micturition. Occasionally medical personnel will cause an iatrogenic paraphimosis by inadvertently leaving the foreskin retracted following insertion of an indwelling urethral catheter. Subsequent edema and venous congestion proximally could lead to decreased...

Echocardiography Evaluation of Aortic Regurgitation

Reimold, MD Echocardiography Assessment in Patients With Aortic Regurgitation Assessment of Aortic Valve Morphology Anatomy of Aortic Valve Echocardiographic Evaluation of Aortic Valve Morphology Impact of Aortic Regurgitation on the Left Ventricle Doppler Echocardiographic Evaluation of the Patient With Aortic Regurgitation Quantitative Measures of Aortic Regurgitation Suggested Reading Aortic regurgitation occurs when a fraction of the blood ejected from the...

Food Preservation Through Control Of Water

As mentioned in the general discussion of food preservation, the most serious limitation of shelf life and nutritional quality is from microbiological activity. This section covers briefly the concept of reducing the amount of water in food systems as a means of food preservation. By lowering the amount of water available for microorganisms to remain active and reducing mobility of potentially reactive chemical species in a food system, it is possible to extend quality of a product from both a...

Tissue Doppler Imaging High Output Heart Failure

BSA, body suface area PLAX, parasternal long-axis LVIDd, left ventricular internal diameter at end diastole LVIDs, left ventricular internal diameter at end systole PSAX, parasternal short-axis A4C, apical four chamber. M-mode or 2D, essentially subtract ventricular cavity volume from the total ventricular volume to obtain the shell or myocardial volume Fig. 15 . This value Fig. 13. Geometric models to estimate left ventricle LV volumes by two-dimensional echocardiography use short-axis area...

Septal Knuckle Hypertrophy Causing Lvot Obstruction

No clear etiological relationship to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless, the prominent septal knuckle found in DUST may cause dynamic outflow tract obstruction Fig. 24 . Mitral Regurgitation in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy A posteriorly directed jet of mitral regurgitation typically accompanies SAM of the mitral valve for reasons explained previously Figs. 18 and 19 . It temporally follows the onset of LVOT obstruction and care should be taken not to confuse its Doppler velocity profile...

Echo Mv Area By Pressure Half Time

Apical four-chamber views of severe longstanding mitral stenosis in a 44-yr-old Vietnamese female. A Note marked thickening and calcification of mitral valve leaflets arrows and subvalvular apparatus accompanied by marked distortion in left heart chamber architecture. B This patient had severe pulmonary hypertension with grossly dilated right heart chambers and severe tricuspid regurgitation arrow . Fig. 5. Measurement of pressure gradients in mitral stenosis. Tracing the...

Infected Vaginal Cuff Hematoma Cellulitis or Abscess

CLINICAL FEATURES A vaginal cuff is formed during a hysterectomy and is composed of the contiguous retroperitoneal space immediately above the vaginal apex and the surrounding soft tissue. This cuff may become infected, leading to cellulitis, hematoma, or abscess. Vaginal cuff cellulitis is a common complication following both abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy. Symptoms and signs usually present between postoperative days 3 and 5, and may begin in the hospital, or just after discharge....

Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis

Colonic diverticula do not arise randomly from the circumference of the large intestine but tend to originate in four distinct rows Fig. 15-48 a on either side of the TM and b near the mesenteric borders of the TO and TL.5,21 These are related to the points of intramural penetration through connective tissue septa of the co-lonic wall.21 Their sites of origin from the TM-TL and TM-TO haustra can be identified clearly on routine radiographic studies Fig. 15-49 . Bona fide diverticula do not...

The Three Extraperitoneal Compartments and Perirenal Fasciae

Detailed evaluation shows that the extraperitoneal region, rather than being composed of amorphous straggling mesenchyme, is distinctly demarcated by well-defined fascial planes. Figure 8-1a is an enlarged horizontal cross-section through the flank at the lower pole of the kidney. Central to the division of the extra-peritoneal region are the conspicuous anterior and posterior layers of renal fascia. The posterior renal fascia was first described by Zuckerkandl21 Fig. 8-2 and the anterior renal...

Cognitive Challenging

Cognitive challenging is another useful treatment for anxiety disorders. Cognitive challenging is based on the assumption that thoughts play a powerful role in producing and maintaining anxiety, as in the spider bite example discussed earlier. The theory behind cognitive challenging suggests that people develop automatic thoughts that are often inaccurate. These thoughts are called automatic because people are usually unaware of them. A common automatic thought may be If I have a panic attack...

The role of dairy products in preventing dental caries

Milk is a biological fluid providing significant nutrients, immunological protection, and biologically active peptides to both infants and adults Clare and Swaisgood, 2000 . Nutritionists have consistently recommended consumption of several servings of milk and other dairy products on a daily basis for all age groups. Despite this recommendation, fluid milk consumption globally has declined over the past decade. However, consumers have continued to ingest large amounts of dairy products...

Manipulation in the Distal Small Intestine

The basic insertion technique for the distal small intestine is to advance the endoscope tip with minimum insertion force so the endoscope forms large concentric circles which are formed by stretching the mesentery in a fan shape around the fixed part of the mesentery on the retroperitoneum Figs. 8.5, 8.6 . As described above, the operator should avoid forcible insertion of a sharply angled endoscope. Reducing the angle as much as possible and swinging the tip allows effective insertion. The...

Reversal of Hartmanns procedure Figure

The reversal of the Hartmann's procedure is the second stage of the operation. To most patients this is the most important part of the whole process. The operation does carry risks and is not as easy and straightforward as reversal of a loop colostomy. Hartmann's procedure involves Figure 7.3 Reversal of Hartmann's procedure. Courtesy of Dansac Ltd. Figure 7.3 Reversal of Hartmann's procedure. Courtesy of Dansac Ltd. another laparotomy and all the inherent risk associated with major bowel...

Endometriosis and your fallopian tubes

Endometriosis can implant on the outside surface of the fallopian tubes and cause scarring. Just like burn scars can lead to contractures that distort limbs and other body parts, the endometriosis scarring can distort the fallopian tubes so they can't function properly. Endometriosis inside the fallopian tube can partially or totally block that tube. This blockage may cause infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Unfortunately, even good imaging techniques, such as X-rays or ultrasounds, can't see...

Principles Of Hurdle Technology

The microorganisms present in a food should not be able to overcome ie, leap over the hurdles inherent in this food. This is illustrated by the so-called hurdle effect 1 , which is of fundamental importance for the preservation of intermediate-moisture foods 2 and high-moisture foods 3 , since the hurdles in a stable product control microbial spoilage and food poisoning as well as desired fermentation processes. Leistner and coworkers acknowledged that the hurdle effect illustrates only the...

Analogue Behavioral Observation

Analogue behavioral observation is a behavioral assessment method in which a clinician observes a client's behavior in a contrived environment e.g., a waiting room, play room, clinical setting to assess variables hypothesized to influence behavior. Although analogue assessment is a direct measure of behavior, the target behavior is observed outside of the individual's natural environment. A special section of the journal Psychological Assessment Vol. 13, No. 1 is devoted to a discussion of...

Wound Preparation and Repair

The repair of foot lacerations, and especially plantar surface lacerations, has been poorly studied. 5 Few clinical practices regarding foot lacerations have been scientifically evaluated. Due to the inherent risk of infection with foot lacerations, excellent wound irrigation with copious amounts of saline irrigation is essential. The ideal time to perform a thorough dry-field exploration to determine tendon integrity and to detect foreign bodies is when the wound is completely anesthetized....

Competing Response Practice

The goal of competing response practice is to teach the client to engage in a competing response each time the habit behavior occurs or when an antecedent to the habit behavior occurs. The therapist implements competing response practice after awareness training is completed, and the client can identify each occurrence of the habit or antecedents to the habit. To begin competing response practice, the client with the aid of the therapist chooses one or more competing responses that can be used...

Izards Theory Of Emotions

Izards 1923- approach to the study of emotions is influenced strongly by the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin 1809-1882 , who argued that certain basic patterns of emotional expression are part of one's biological inheritance. Such patterns of emotion evolved because of their high survival value in giving humans mutual and beneficial systems of communication. For example, humans - including nonhuman animals such as dogs and baboons - grimace and bare their...

Lateral Wind Swept Toes Deformity

In most cases, this deformity is combined with hallux valgus deformity as well as hammertoe. The wind-swept toes will remain even after correction of hallux valgus. Furthermore, the wind-swept toes are mostly combined with excessive length of the lesser metatarsals. To assess the necessity of performing lesser rays specific surgery, we perform a check test, passive hallux valgus correction which in main cases shows that the wind-swept devia tion remains in spite of the great toe correction. MTP...

Intrinsic And Extrinsic Parameters Of Foods

All foods possess a set of conditions called intrinsic parameters. These parameters can be influenced by another set of conditions called extrinsic parameters. Together, these two groups of parameters have great influence on the number and kinds of microorganisms occurring in and on a food and their physiologic activities. Intrinsic parameters of food include pH, moisture, oxidation-reduction potential (presence or absence of oxygen), nutrient content, occurrence of antimicrobial constituents,...

Nine Fundamentals Of Biomechanics

Biomechanists measure all kinds of linear and angular mechanical variables to document and find the causes of human motion. While these variables and studies are extremely interesting to biomechanists, some kinesiology students and professionals may not find them quite so inherently stimulating. Most kinesiology professionals want to know the basic rules of biomechanics that they can apply in their jobs. This section proposes nine such principles of biome-chanics and demonstrates how they...

Naming the two main treatment options

Immune therapy is successful with other types of autoimmune disease, and because of the link of endometriosis to autoimmune diseases, researchers suggest that immune therapy may work against endometriosis. Because the FDA hasn't approved any of these more aggressive treatments for endometrio-sis, we include them in this chapter. The two main treatments include 1 Intravenous immunoglobulin (TVIG) IVIG is a sterile protein preparation derived from human blood, given intravenously. IVIG is being...

Causes of a Loud A2 or P2

What conditions tend to make the aortic component of the second sound louder than normal ANS a. Conditions that raise aortic systolic pressure, e.g., systemic hyper tension, which occasionally produces a drumlike sound or tambour S2. A tambour is a small drum that is covered only on one side. The tambour effect may persist even after the blood pressure has been lowered to normal by medication. b. Conditions that produce a hyperkinetic systemic circulation, e.g., youth, or thyrotoxicosis. The...

Echocardiography Foreshortening

Two-dimensional-guided M-mode measurements and derived indices. M-mode is simple, reproducible, and accurate when ventricular geometry is normal. It provides good endocardial resolution. The ejection fraction EF, Teich is an automated calculation based on the Teichholz method see Table 4 . Fig. 3. Two-dimensional-guided M-mode measurements and derived indices. M-mode is simple, reproducible, and accurate when ventricular geometry is normal. It provides good endocardial resolution. The...

Anatomy and physiology of diverticular disease

Diverticular disease is a twentieth century disease that results in part from changes in diet, age and lifestyle although there is little research to support this Bassotti et al., 2003 . It is one of the most frequent diseases seen in gastroenterology departments. Diverticula are small herniations in the bowel wall they can occur anywhere in the bowel. The diverticular pouches usually appear in the descending and sigmoid colon Stollman and Rashkin, 1999 , frequently manifesting at the weakest...

Nature Identical and Artificial Flavouring Substances

Since ancient times the delicious taste and aroma of foods, herbs, spices and essential oils have been inspiring human beings in different cultures, geographical locations and ages 1 . Over thousands of years people have developed a wealth of recipes, techniques and technologies for food preparations, mainly driven by flavour, comprising aroma, taste, texture, viscosity, temperature as well as cooling, tingling and pungency 2 . Starting from distillation and extraction in the world of ancient...

Difficult Colonoscopy

Total colonoscopy has become common practice, and it is less frequently difficult to complete a total colonoscopy by inserting an endoscope into the cecum. In some patients, however, even skilled endoscopists give up inserting the endoscope into the cecum because of its difficulty. As described in Chapter 5, what makes insertion of a colonoscope and other endoscopes difficult is the stretching of the intestine that has formed bends or loops. The endoscope tip does not advance because endoscope...

Distinction Between Perirenal and Subcapsular Collections

Abscesses or hematomas in the perirenal space and in the subcapsular region of the kidney can simulate each other and a host of other conditions closely. Identification of their specific localization may be very important in the clinical diagnosis and in determining the most appropriate therapy. Advances in establishing the characteristic features of abscesses or hematomas are based on the anatomic structures that define their collection.11 Anatomic Considerations. The renal capsule Fig. 8158...

Conceptions of Medical Pluralism

Various medical anthropologists have formulated various schemes or approaches that recognize the phenomenon of medical pluralism in complex societies. Based upon their cultural ecological settings, Dunn 1976 delineates three types of medical systems 1 local medical systems, 2 regional medical systems, and 3 the cosmopolitan medical system. Local medical systems are folk or indigenous medical systems in foraging, horticultural or pastoral societies, or peasant communities in state societies....

Hydrostatic Retort Cutaway

This allowed a concurrent development of devices permitting the exposure of the filled and sealed containers to steam pressures above atmospheric, namely, processing temperatures of 120 C instead of only 100 C (boiling water). Because the thermal inactivation of food spoilage organisms is a function of both time and temperature, the higher temperature under pressure allowed a very considerable reduction in the time necessary to ensure product sterility. Equally important was...

Test User Qualification Levels

All reputable test publishers require test purchasers to complete a form specifying the credentials that qualify them to use the testing materials they wish to buy and certifying that the materials will be used in accordance with all applicable ethical and legal guidelines. Although the number of levels and the specific credentials required at each level differ among publishers, their qualification criteria are typically organized into at least three tiers, based roughly on a categorization of...

Lymphatic Drainage of the Liver and Pathways of Lymph Node Metastasis

The lymphatic drainage of the liver consists of two major pathways the deep pathways and the superficial pathways.1 The lymphatic vessels in the liver are believed to originate in the perilobular connective tissue. The perilobular lymphatic vessels from the lobules deep inside the parenchyma drain into the deep networks along the periportal space in the Glisson's sheath toward the porta hepatis and along the hepatic veins. The perilobular lymphatic vessels from the lobules near the surface of...

PEG Placement Principle Indications and Contraindications

PEG provides a rapid, simple method for long-term enteral feeding. Although the method can generally be used without complications, there are still some significant risks that should be kept in mind. PEG placement is a technically simple procedure (Figs. 4.32, 4.33). A cannula is passed through the abdominal wall, and a guide suture is threaded into the stomach through the cannula. It is retrieved endoscopi-cally, withdrawn through the mouth, and used to pull the PEG tube down the esophagus and...

Organization of a Pharmaceutical Company

A pharmaceutical company that is complete in all the necessary research and business operations and divisions is called a fully integrated pharmaceutical company (FIPCO). A FIPCO contains eight operating divisions. The eight divisions of a FIPCO are presented in the next diagram (Fig. 1.23). Research and development (R& D) and Fig. 1.23. Fully Integrated Pharmaceutical Company Fig. 1.23. Fully Integrated Pharmaceutical Company sales and marketing (S& M) divisions house the largest number...

Urethral Catheterization

Urethral catheterization is a useful procedure for the surgical patient. One of the more important indications for this procedure is to accurately measure urine output. Urine output is a critical parameter for the patient's hemody-namic status. Another indication is the relief of urinary retention, which could be due to medications, neurologic injury, or loss of bladder tone. Temporary treatment of urinary incontinence, collecting urine for bacterial culture, and treatment of perineal wounds...

Endometriosis in Your Brain Rare but Possible

The idea of endometriosis ending up in the place farthest from its initial source may sound impossible, but it's true endometriosis can, in rare cases, end up in your brain. So no matter what some people think, endometriosis is definitely not just in your head. Obviously, more than retrograde menstruation must send endometrial tissue all the way up to your head, so endometrial tissue must arrive there via one of the other theories of endometriosis transmission. See Chapter 4 for the theories on...

Xanthophylls Lutein and Zeaxanthin

The structural isomers lutein and zeaxanthin are non-provitamin A carotenoids that are also measurable in human blood and tissues. Lutein and zea-xanthin have been identified as the xanthophylls that constitute the macular pigment of the human retina. The relative concentration of lutein to zeaxanthin in the macula is distinctive. Zeaxanthin is more centralized and lutein predominates towards the outer area of the macula. A putative xanthophyll-binding protein has also been described, which may...

Ionizing Radiation Gamma Radiation

Several studies have been reported in which ionizing radiation with 60Co was utilized to reduce the toxicity of bacterial endotoxin. Bertok and Szeberenyi 47 describe the use of a 60Co-irradiated endotoxin preparation, TOLERIN that significantly decreased the endotoxin's lethal and hypotensive effects in a dose-related manner. Endotoxin's ability to activate the complement system was also affected, and immunoadjuvant properties and ability to stimulate nonspecific resistance were retained....

Unipolar Limb Leads aVR aVL aVF

Unipolar leads record the difference between an active limb electrode and an indifferent zero potential electrode at the centre of Einthoven's triangle Figure HE.11 . These signals are of lower amplitude than other leads and require increased amplification hence referred to as augmented leads aVR the augmented unipolar right arm lead faces the heart from the right side and is usually orientated to the cavity of the heart. Therefore, all the deflections P, QRS and T are normally negative in this...

NSAIDInduced Small Intestinal Ulcer

Allison et al. reported that autopsies revealed small-intestinal ulcers in 8.4 of patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for a long time 1 . In daily clinical practice, patients who are prescribed NSAIDs for relief of pain associated with rheumatic disease or arthropathy often have manifestations of melena and anemia of unknown cause. Many of these lesions are not accompanied by ulcers of the stomach, duodenum, large intestine, or terminal ileum that are accessible by...

Composting Plant Open Windrow

Fig. 13.3 Factors influencing the composting process. Fig. 13.4 Characteristic temperature curve during composting process. of the waste, the surface volume ratio of the heap, air temperature, wind velocity, aeration rate, C N ratio, processing technique, and mixing frequency. The first phase of the composting process, up to a temperature up to about 60 C, is called the pre- and main composting the second phase is called the post-composting or mature phase. Both phases are characterized by...

Debating danazol Danocrine

Danazol (brand-name Danocrine) is an oral drug that was extensively used in the past to treat endometriosis. Although it was proven to be effective, its numerous side effects (see Facing the side effects of danazol later in this chapter) have resulted in its replacement by more modern medical treatments. However, for some women with endometriosis, it remains an optional medical treatment. Danazol acts like two kinds of sex hormones, estrogen and testosterone. Its structure is very similar to...

Anatomic Subdivision Of Cerebellum

When the occipital bone is opened, the dorsal surface of the cerebellum is clearly visible in the posterior cerebral fossa. The most prominent aspect of the cerebellar surface is the presence of many parallel convolutions that run perpendicular to its anteroposterior axis. In saggital sections, this chain of parallel convolutions has a characteristic appearance, like leaves stemming from the same trunk. This feature, defined by early anatomists as arbor vitae ''life tree'' , is at the origin of...

Emulsion Science In The Food Industry

Many natural and processed foods consist either partly or wholly as emulsions or have been in an emulsified state at some time during their production such foods include milk, cream, butter, margarine, fruit beverages, soups, cake batters, mayonnaise, cream liqueurs, sauces, desserts, salad cream, ice cream, and coffee whitener Friberg and Larsson 1997, Krog et al. 1983, Jaynes 1983, Dickinson and Stainsby 1982, Dickinson 1992, Swaisgood 1996 . Emulsion-based food products exhibit a wide...

Reagents and Solutions

Researchers involved in the early work with plant FCM isolated protoplasts with hydrolytic enzyme mixtures, lysed the protoplasts and stained them with a fluoro-chrome, mainly DAPI. Dolezel et al. 1989 give examples of Zea mays Poaceae and Medicago sativa Fabaceae callus and leaf material. Today, the method of preparing a suspension of nuclei for measurement follows the ingeniously simple procedure of Galbraith et al. 1983 . It consists basically of i chopping up the plant material with a sharp...

Economic Importance Of Coffee

Coffee, a significant factor in international trade for about 185 years, is among the leading agricultural products in international trade along with wheat, corn, and soybeans. The total world exportable production of green coffee in the 1997-1998 growing season is approximately 81.7 million bags Table 1 . This compares with a total production of about 107.5 million bags, the difference being internal consumption. Table 2 shows imports and consumption data. The International Coffee Organization...

Beck Therapy Approach

Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research, University of Pennsylvania I. Description of Treatment II. Theoretical Basis III. Efficacy IV Summary automatic thought An idea that seems to arise in one's mind spontaneously, in verbal or imaginal from. belief One's basic understandings of oneself, one's world, and other people. cognition A thought, image, rule, attitude, assumption, or belief. cognitive distortion A type of thinking error. schema A relatively stable and enduring mental...

Cohesion species concept

The cohesion species concept defines species as ' the most inclusive group of organisms having the potential for genetic and or demographic exchangeability' (Templeton 1989). Templeton (1989) argued that one of the main weaknesses of the biological species concept was its lack of applicability to either asexual organisms or to taxa belonging to syngameons. In Templeton's (1989) terminology the difficulty resulted from either 'too little' or 'too much sex'. Templeton (1989) proposed the cohesion...

Single Stage Extraction

In the case that carrier and solvent are immiscible, the concentration of solute in extract and raffinate can be graphically depicted with the equilibrium curve in the loading diagram. Together with the volumes of feed and solvent, the mass balance for the solute leads to the amount of solute that can be recovered. Whenever the miscibility of the two phases varies and is dependent on concentration, a triangular diagram is employed Fig. 2.5 . Here the three corners of the equilateral triangle...

Lymphatic Drainage of the Colon and Pathways of Lymph Node Metastasis

Regional nodal metastasis is one of the most common modes of tumor spread in carcinoma of the colon. The lymph nodes draining lymphatics from the colon can be classified into four groups the epicolic nodes, the para-colic nodes, the intermediate mesocolic nodes, and the principal nodes.16,17 The epicolic nodes lie on the wall of the colon beneath the peritoneum covering the colon, generally on the antimesocolic side of the colonic wall. The paracolic nodes lie along the marginal vessels along...

Isovolumic Relaxation Time Echo

Pulmonary venous flow normal vs dysfunction. Doppler patterns of pulmonary venous flow. Abnormal pulmonary venous flow is characterized by blunting of the systolic wave and increased atrial reversal velocity and or duration. S, systolic flow D, diastolic flow A, atrial reversal. Fig. 10. Measuring pulmonary venous flow see Technical Issues in Measuring PV Flow section for explanation . Fig. 10. Measuring pulmonary venous flow see Technical Issues in Measuring PV Flow section for...

Reduced Stutter Product Formation

The amount of stutter product formation may be reduced when using STR markers with longer repeat units, STR alleles with imperfect repeat units, and DNA polymerases with faster processivity. Several pentanucleotide repeat loci have been developed in an effort to produce STR markers that exhibit low amounts of stutter products to aid in mixture interpretation Bacher and Schumm 1998 . The first seven loci have been labeled Penta A through Penta G. Penta E has been incorporated in the GenePrint...

Internal Examination of Hanging Deaths

Internal injuries are absent in many hangings, even with complete suspension, which underscores that hanging is a gentle form of asphyxia, particularly when self-inflicted 4,7,15,16,23,24,28,50,93,128 . Consciousness is lost rapidly, with little time for purposeful activity 125 . Vagal stimulation leading to sudden cardiac arrest could also be a factor 90 . Internal neck injuries were seen in about 60 of hanging deaths in one series 16 . There was a higher frequency of trauma in complete...

Endometriosis in Your Lungs Coughing Chest Pain and Breathing Problems

Endometriosis in your lungs isn't common, and it can be really hard to diagnose because your doctor won't think of it when you come in coughing up blood. You may not even think to tell him you're having your period, and he's unlikely to ask. Diagnosing endometriosis in the lungs, or thoracic endometriosis, requires an inquiring mind. Even if you know you have endometriosis elsewhere, you may think that relating it to your lung problems is too far fetched. Thoracic endometriosis can cause many...

References On Preservation And Storage Of Food With Publishing

ALLI I (1993), 'Quality control of MAP products', in Parry R T, Principles and Applications of Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Food, London, Blackie Academic & Professional, an imprint of Chapman & Hall, 101-114. AMANATIDOU A (2001) High oxygen as an additional factor in food preservation, PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. ARANGO H, VAILLANT F, VELEZ C, MILLAN P and REYNES M (1999), 'Evaluation of post-harvest performance of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruits...

Speculating on How Endometriosis Develops The Most Common Theories

Several prevalent theories exist as to why endometriosis develops in some women and not in others. Some days you may not really care how it got there you just want it to go away But understanding how a disease works is the first step to overcoming the problems it can bring. In this section, we review the most common theories. Migrating out the tubes Retrograde menstruation Every woman with a uterus has endometrial cells cells that line the inside of the uterus and support a pregnancy . Studies...

Bony Landmarks Femur And Tibia

The femur is the longest bone of the human body. It consists of a rounded proximal head that articulates with the acetabulum at the hip, a nearly cylindrical shaft, and a distal metaphysis that forms two large rounded condyles that articulate with the tibia. Forensic Medicine of the Lower Extremity Human Identification and Trauma Analysis Edited by J. Rich, D. E. Dean, and R. H. Powers The Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ Fig. 1. Anterior femur A Anterior view of the entire femur B The distal...

Theoretical Orientations and Methods in Nutritional Anthropology

As with other fields of anthropology a wide variety of theoretical perspectives and methods are used in nutritional anthropology. A range of ecological, symbolic, materialist, and political perspectives has been used to explain patterns of food selection, nutritional consequences, and the relationships of nutrition to sociocultural, economic, and ecological processes. What foods people eat and how much they eat are determined not simply by physiological needs, but also by political and...

Splitobject Triangles

A married woman or man who takes a lover may only be indulging in a dalliance, in which case he or she may view it as irrelevant to the marriage. But when an adulterous affair becomes a passion rather than a diversion, a split-object triangle develops with a split in valuation between the spouse and the lover, the marriage and the affair. The spouse, if not actually loathed, comes to be seen as at the very least limited. The marriage, if not bad, is experienced as stultifying. The lover comes...

Importance Of Excipient Selection In The Process Of Oral Liquid Formulation Development

When developing an oral liquid dosage formulation, consideration is first given to the characteristics of the active drug. The major challenges in developing oral liquid dosage forms are i the stability of a drug in solution, ii the solubility of a drug at the required level, and iii an acceptable taste. It is the effective use of excipients, which allows for-mulators overcome these challenges. Additionally, an excipient's compatibility with a drug in the solid state cannot infer the same...

History of Nutritional Anthropology

The early history of nutritional anthropology dates back to studies of food and social organization in non-industrial societies in the 1930s. The British anthropologist Audrey Richards (1939) is often described as the first one who explicitly focused on food. She studied economic and social factors affecting food among the Bemba in central Africa. Her work was part of the British applied anthropology movement, which was associated with colonial governance and welfare. In the 1940s, studies of...

Mustarde Cheek Rotation Flap for Lower Eyelid Repair

A Mustarde cheek flap is a large rotation flap with its leading edge at the lateral canthus extending laterally and arching like a Tenzel flap 12 . The incision is then continued laterally to the preauricular crease toward the level of the earlobe. A wide subcutaneous undermining proceeds, the extent of which is determined by the laxity of the skin and the extent of the defect. The posterior lamella must be reconstituted and Mustarde recommends a composite graft of nasal septal cartilage and...

Detailed Anatomy of the Right Upper Quadrant

Since Barnard's original classification8 in 1908, a great deal of confusion in the definition and true anatomic Fig. 3-3. Rutherford Morison 1853-1939 . Morison, an English surgeon, is best known for the pouch that he described in The Anatomy of the Right Hypochondrium Relating Especially to Operations for Gallstones in 1894. He emphasized that bile leaks drain into this area but the external drain must extend to the very depths of the pouch. Courtesy of Wellcome Institute of the History of...

Endometriosis may even cause intestinal contractions and hypoglycemia

A study by Baylor University looked at a group of women with endometriosis and found they had increased frequency of contractions within the muscle layer of the intestine, which can be related to the production of prostaglandins and other substances by the endometrial implants. Prostaglandins are produced in the endometriosis and then released into the surrounding tissues, blood vessels, and lymphatic tissue. This occurrence may also account for cramping and intestinal symptoms in women who...

Obligate Vs Facultative Carnivores

Animals that eat only animal prey are sometimes called strict or obligate carnivores to distinguish them from facultative carnivores that eat mostly animal prey but also consume nonanimal foods. Felids are strict carnivores and, in the wild, obtain most of their food by predation on the tissues of mammals, birds, or fish. Their domestic representative, the cat (Felis catus), differs in several respects in its metabolism and nutrient requirements from the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), a canid...

The Bangor Dyslexia Test II

Combining a clinical approach with a statistical one was not always easy. At an early stage in the research I presented a paper to my colleagues with the title 'How Do I Score the crikey ' The situation which I envisaged was one in which a subject, presented, for instance, with a request to say the months of the year, responded, 'Oh, crikey ' - and then proceeded to say the months of the year correctly. Was I to ignore the 'crikey' on the grounds that it was a one-off remark which could not be...

The Bangor Dyslexia Test I

How, then, did the Bangor Dyslexia Test originate and what did I wish it to achieve In the first place I believed that dyslexia was a syndrome - a family of manifestations, having a constitutional basis. There was in the 1970s only circumstantial evidence for the constitutional basis the condition ran in families, which suggested a genetic basis, and, more speculatively, it was possible that there were analogies between the behaviour of the children whom I was assessing and the behaviour of...

Patterns of Torture and Terrorism

Physical beating is a widespread form of torture 56 . Palmatoria is a form of localized torture virtually unique to the small West African country Guinea-Bissau. Palmatoria involve repetitive blows by a slender rod to the shin, where the tibia lies closest beneath the skin. Ordinary radiographs of somewhat limited quality have shown a periosteal reaction, presumably as a result of subperiosteal hemorrhage and hematoma. Somewhat peculiar endosteal and medullary changes have also been seen Fig....

PCR based molecular markers

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) are in fact just one example of a whole set of PCR-based molecular markers, which have been collectively termed as MAAP, multiple arbitrary amplicon profiling (Caetano-Anolles, 1993). These approaches have in common the use of one, usually, or two primers of random sequence to amplify multibanded fingerprints from a complex genome (Fig. 1.8). The techniques differ in the length and sequence of the primers, number of amplification cycles, temperature of...

Repair of Scalp Lacerations

It is not necessary to shave the scalp prior to closure shaving actually increases the likelihood of a wound infection and produces a less desirable cosmetic result in the short term. In most cases, the hair can be brushed aside. One can also apply an ointment such as bacitracin zinc or petrolatum to mat down the hair adjacent to the laceration. Hair braiding has been described as an alternate closure technique. 13 Large galeal defects should be repaired if possible to prevent a wide, depressed...

Complications Of Percutaneous Nephrostomy Tubes

While initially developed as emergent procedure for the relief of urinary obstruction, the use of percutaneous nephrostomy PCN has expanded beyond urinary diversion to a variety of other diagnostic procedures and therapeutic interventions. Patients with nephrostomy catheters may present to the emergency department days after placement, with complications relating either to the procedure or to the device itself. Other patients may present with complications related to the long-term use of...

The Lipostat Theory Predicts the Feedback Regulation of Adipose Tissue

The lipostat theory postulates a mechanism that inhibits eating behavior and increases energy consumption whenever body weight exceeds a certain value the set point the inhibition is relieved when body weight drops below the set point Fig. 23-30 . This theory predicts that a feedback signal originating in adipose tissue influences the brain centers that control eating behavior and activity metabolic and motor . The first such factor, leptin, was discovered in 1994, and several others are now...

Contract Research Organizations CROs

As the pharmaceutical industry has expanded and matured, industry managers have become increasingly sensitized to the need to operate the clinical operations area as a scientific business in relation to the maintenance of large in-house clinical development organizations (Fig. 8.28). In response to these concerns, contract research organizations (CROs) began to spring up during the 1970s and to play a progressively more prominent role in the industry over the subsequent three decades. CROs have...

Definitions of Behavior Modification and Therapy

Kazdin has written the most comprehensive and authoritative history of behavior modification and behavior therapy currently available. The terms behavior therapy and behavior modification denoted differences that were perhaps once more vigorously defended than they are today. Kazdin's preface states Behavior modification can be defined as the application of basic research and theory from experimental psychology to influence behavior for purposes of resolving personal and social problems and...

Darwins Theory Of Emotions

Charles Darwin speculated that in prehistoric times - before communication that used words was common - one's ability to communicate with facial expressions increased an individual's chances of survival. Facial expressions could convey the various important messages of threat, submission, happiness, anger, and so on. Darwin's theory of emotions holds that the basic emotions demonstrated by facial expressions are a universal language among all humans no matter what their cultural setting. Today,...

Motivational Hedonic Theory

According to American psychologist Jacob Levine 1969 , theories of humor that are based largely on experimental evidence have employed, generally, three basic research models to explain motivational i.e., goal-directed, drive-energized behaviors sources of humor cognitive-perceptual theory involves the resolution of incongruities behavior theory emphasizes the stimulus-response aspects of learning and the reduction of basic drives and Freudian psychoanalytic...

Hobbes Psychological Theory

The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), often referred to as the founder of British empiricism (cf., Locke's psychological theory), asserted in his primary principle of psychology that all knowledge is derived through sensations. By suggesting that nothing exists internal or external to the individual (except matter and motion), Hobbes grounded his psychology firmly in the philosophical positions called materialism and mechanism (cf., Brennan, 1991). The materialistic approach...

Blocked tubes can cause ectopic pregnancy

So an ectopic pregnancy is outside the uterus and usually, but not always, inside the fallopian tube. Very rarely, ectopic pregnancies can implant in the abdomen or in the ovary itself, although approximately 95 percent implant in the fallopian tubes. The damage that endometriosis does to the fimbriae and the tubes in general greatly increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Damage to the fimbriae or tubes can cause the following potentially dangerous scenarios i...

Why Pythagoras Wouldnt Eat Falafel Glucose 6Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

Fava beans, an ingredient of falafel, have been an important food source in the Mediterranean and Middle East since antiquity. The Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras prohibited his followers from dining on fava beans, perhaps because they make many people sick with a condition called favism, which can be fatal. In favism, erythrocytes begin to lyse 24 to 48 hours after ingestion of the beans, releasing free hemoglobin into the blood. Jaundice and sometimes kidney failure can result....

Endometriosis Is a Career Womans Disease

The concept of endometriosis being a career woman's disease is an old wives' tale based on the premise that only driven, Type-A personalities got endometriosis. This myth is a twisted version of it's all in your head, but it adds the dig, You brought this problem on yourself by being a driven career woman. The attitude probably gained credence when career women started trying to get pregnant at a later age than traditional homemakers. If the older woman had trouble getting pregnant,...

Segment Left Ventricle Model ASE

Parasternal Long-Axis I Apical Long-Axis Parasternal Long-Axis I Apical Long-Axis Fig. 10. The American Society of Echocardiography ASE issued a 16-segment left ventricle model for wall motion assessment. The American Heart Association's AHA 17-segment model has an additional apical segment cap added to harmonize left ventricular segment nomenclature with nuclear cardiology and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A A 16-segment model of left ventricular segments ASE . B A 17-segment model of...

Testing testing Ultrasounds Xrays CT scans MRIs and more

Have you ever wished you could just look inside your body and see what's giving you trouble Although Superman's X-ray vision was great, today's ultrasounds, X-rays, computed tomography-scan tests (CTs), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRIs) are the next best thing. Ultrasound can help your doctor diagnose distorted or swollen fallopian tubes, endometriosis, other pelvic problems, and uterine anomalies. Ultrasound bounces sound waves off internal organs or tissues, detecting differences in the...

Bulimia Nervosa Algorithm

Emergency management of patients with eating disorders involves consideration of the complications and effects of the disorder. Nutritional rehabilitation should be the primary goal of treatment in both anorexia and bulimia. Anorexics tend to need a very gradual introduction of macronutrients. Bulimics tend to need fewer calories initially, and it is important to normalize the eating pattern. Normotensive, hypokalemic, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis is typical of purging eating-disorder...

Sterilization Versus Pasteurization

Thermal processing covers the broad area of food preservation technology in which heat treatments are used to inactivate microorganisms to accomplish either commercial sterilization or pasteurization. Sterilization processes are used with canning to preserve the safety and wholesomeness of ready-to-eat foods over long terms of extended storage at normal room temperature (nonrefrigerated) without additives or preservatives, and pasteurization processes are used to extend the refrigerated storage...

Grade IIV Reflux Esophagitis

The inflammatory lesions of reflux esophagitis are currently graded according to the Savary-Miller classification, which is summarized in Table 3.4. Grades I-III. Grades I-III Fig. 3.25 reflect a more or less pronounced acute attack. These grades may be complicated by superficial bleeding, but some cases initially resolve without sequelae. Grade IV. Grade IV Fig. 3.26 represents the chronic, complicated stage of reflux esophagitis, which is subject to its own dynamic. The most serious...

Abnormalities of the V Wave

How can you recognize a higher than normal V wave at a glance ANS By recognizing a Y descent of greater amplitude than normal. 2. What are the common causes of a higher than normal jugular V wave ANS a. Excessive right atrial filling either from 1 above the tricuspid valve, as in ASD or anomalous pulmonary venous connection, or 2 below the tricuspid valve as in TR. b. Loss of compliance of the right atrium from either 1 outside the heart, i.e., constrictive pericarditis, or 2 inside the...

History of food irradiation

As noted in Table 18.1, the benefits of ionizing radiation have been known since 1905. In addition to its potential to irradiation can be used to eliminate pests such as the screw worm fly, which preys on cattle, the Mediterranean fruit fly, and the tsetse fly, by the release of sterile insects. Worries about nuclear weapons, combinedwithanantiprogressideology, began to hinder food irradiation research afterthe war. Althoughthere wasatthat time an adequate supply of gamma rays, the high-energy,...

Echo Pulmonary Vein Doppler

Table modified from Garcia MJ, Thomas JD, Klein AL. New Doppler echocardiography applications for the study of diastolic function. J Am Coll Cardio 1998 32 865-875. Unless atrial mechanical failure present. AR, pulmonary venous peak atrial contraction reversal velocity EDT, early left ventricular filling deceleration time IVRT, isovolumic relaxation time S D, systolic-to-diastolic pulmonary venous flow ratio. Table modified from Garcia MJ, Thomas JD, Klein AL. New Doppler echocardiography...

The Limitations Of Functional Anatomical Analysis

Anatomy classifies muscles into functional groups flexors extensors, abductors adductors, etc. based on hypothesized actions. These muscle groups are useful general classifications and are commonly used in fitness education, weight training, and rehabilitation. These hypothesized muscle actions in movements and exercises are used to judge the relevance of various exercise training or rehabilitation programs. This section will show that such qualitative estimations of muscle actions are often...

The physiological rationale for using heart rate

In healthy individuals and cardiac patients, the common aim of using heart rate is to act as a marker of the physiological strain of the exercising skeletal muscles. Specific to the cardiac patient, the role of heart rate in conjunction with systolic blood pressure also acts as a key indicator of myocardial strain Froelicher and Myers, 2000 . As a marker of the body's general physiological strain during aerobic exercise, heart rate is usually described as a percentage of maximal heart rate...

Nonhuman Dna Testing And Microbial Forensics

We urge as rapid development of new systems as is consistent with their validation before they are put into general use. One's ideas must be as broad as Nature if they are to interpret Nature. (Sherlock Holmes, A Study in Scarlet) While the vast majority of forensic DNA typing performed for criminal investigations involves human DNA, it is not the only source of DNA that may be useful in demonstrating the guilt or innocence of an individual suspected of a crime (Sensabaugh and Kaye 1998)....

Taking antidepressants

At first glance, you may think this section is in the wrong chapter. How can taking prescription antidepressants help with pain Actually, antidepressants can help decrease chronic pain in several ways. The two most obvious ways are i Decreased depression, which is a common side effect of chronic pain (Check out Chapter 15 for more information about depression and your emotions.) However, there's much more to this story. Many studies have shown that some classes of antidepressants have analgesic...

Mitral Valve Prolapse Overdiagnosis

During diastole, the myxomatous leaflets can be measured. Thickened leaflets more than 5 mm support the diagnosis of classic MVP. Please see companion DVD for corresponding video. Fig. 6. Bileaflet prolapse is easily visualized in the apical four-chamber A4C view. However, the mitral valve profile is normally exaggerated in this view and may lead to overdiagnosis of mitral valve prolapse left panel . Severe mitral regurgitation was present right panel . Please see companion DVD for...

Polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia polyclonal gammopathy

Pathophysiology of polyclonal gammopathy Polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia is usually due to an underlying infectious, inflammatory or neoplastic disorder such as a carcinoma. Antigen is processed by antigen-presenting cells which activate T cells to induce proliferation of antigen-specific B cells. Under the influence of cytokines such as interleukin 6 IL-6 , these B cells differentiate into antibody-producing plasma cells. These polyclonal plasma cells increase in number in the bone marrow,...