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7 Days To Drink Less Online Alcohol Reduction Program

7 Days To Drink Less Online Alcohol Reduction Program

Stop Fat Storage

Stop Fat Storage

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Cure for TMJ, bruxing and Tooth Grinding Review

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Infatuation Scripts Review

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One Minute Weight Loss Review

Completing the Jigsaw Review

Completing the Jigsaw Review

Slim Belly Fix Review

Slim Belly Fix Review

Neuroactiv6 Brain and Energy Support Supplement Review

Neuroactiv6 Brain and Energy Support Supplement Review

Live Your Best Life Review

Live Your Best Life Review

Cat Spray No More Review

Cat Spray No More Review

Plyomaster Revolution Vert Builder Pro Review

Plyomaster Revolution Vert Builder Pro Review

Panic Miracle System Review

Panic Miracle System Review

Articles

The Lipostat Theory Predicts the Feedback Regulation of Adipose Tissue

The lipostat theory postulates a mechanism that inhibits eating behavior and increases energy consumption whenever body weight exceeds a certain value the set point the inhibition is relieved when body weight drops below the set point Fig. 23-30 . This theory predicts that a feedback signal originating in adipose tissue influences the brain centers that control eating behavior and activity metabolic and motor . The first such factor, leptin, was discovered in 1994, and several others are now...

Contract Research Organizations CROs

As the pharmaceutical industry has expanded and matured, industry managers have become increasingly sensitized to the need to operate the clinical operations area as a scientific business in relation to the maintenance of large in-house clinical development organizations (Fig. 8.28). In response to these concerns, contract research organizations (CROs) began to spring up during the 1970s and to play a progressively more prominent role in the industry over the subsequent three decades. CROs have...

Reduced Stutter Product Formation

The amount of stutter product formation may be reduced when using STR markers with longer repeat units, STR alleles with imperfect repeat units, and DNA polymerases with faster processivity. Several pentanucleotide repeat loci have been developed in an effort to produce STR markers that exhibit low amounts of stutter products to aid in mixture interpretation Bacher and Schumm 1998 . The first seven loci have been labeled Penta A through Penta G. Penta E has been incorporated in the GenePrint...

Causes of a Loud A2 or P2

What conditions tend to make the aortic component of the second sound louder than normal ANS a. Conditions that raise aortic systolic pressure, e.g., systemic hyper tension, which occasionally produces a drumlike sound or tambour S2. A tambour is a small drum that is covered only on one side. The tambour effect may persist even after the blood pressure has been lowered to normal by medication. b. Conditions that produce a hyperkinetic systemic circulation, e.g., youth, or thyrotoxicosis. The...

Hobbes Psychological Theory

The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), often referred to as the founder of British empiricism (cf., Locke's psychological theory), asserted in his primary principle of psychology that all knowledge is derived through sensations. By suggesting that nothing exists internal or external to the individual (except matter and motion), Hobbes grounded his psychology firmly in the philosophical positions called materialism and mechanism (cf., Brennan, 1991). The materialistic approach...

Darwins Theory Of Emotions

Charles Darwin speculated that in prehistoric times - before communication that used words was common - one's ability to communicate with facial expressions increased an individual's chances of survival. Facial expressions could convey the various important messages of threat, submission, happiness, anger, and so on. Darwin's theory of emotions holds that the basic emotions demonstrated by facial expressions are a universal language among all humans no matter what their cultural setting. Today,...

Motivational Hedonic Theory

According to American psychologist Jacob Levine 1969 , theories of humor that are based largely on experimental evidence have employed, generally, three basic research models to explain motivational i.e., goal-directed, drive-energized behaviors sources of humor cognitive-perceptual theory involves the resolution of incongruities behavior theory emphasizes the stimulus-response aspects of learning and the reduction of basic drives and Freudian psychoanalytic...

Blocked tubes can cause ectopic pregnancy

So an ectopic pregnancy is outside the uterus and usually, but not always, inside the fallopian tube. Very rarely, ectopic pregnancies can implant in the abdomen or in the ovary itself, although approximately 95 percent implant in the fallopian tubes. The damage that endometriosis does to the fimbriae and the tubes in general greatly increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Damage to the fimbriae or tubes can cause the following potentially dangerous scenarios i...

Endometriosis and your fallopian tubes

Endometriosis can implant on the outside surface of the fallopian tubes and cause scarring. Just like burn scars can lead to contractures that distort limbs and other body parts, the endometriosis scarring can distort the fallopian tubes so they can't function properly. Endometriosis inside the fallopian tube can partially or totally block that tube. This blockage may cause infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Unfortunately, even good imaging techniques, such as X-rays or ultrasounds, can't see...

Why Pythagoras Wouldnt Eat Falafel Glucose 6Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

Fava beans, an ingredient of falafel, have been an important food source in the Mediterranean and Middle East since antiquity. The Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras prohibited his followers from dining on fava beans, perhaps because they make many people sick with a condition called favism, which can be fatal. In favism, erythrocytes begin to lyse 24 to 48 hours after ingestion of the beans, releasing free hemoglobin into the blood. Jaundice and sometimes kidney failure can result....

Echo Mv Area By Pressure Half Time

Apical four-chamber views of severe longstanding mitral stenosis in a 44-yr-old Vietnamese female. A Note marked thickening and calcification of mitral valve leaflets arrows and subvalvular apparatus accompanied by marked distortion in left heart chamber architecture. B This patient had severe pulmonary hypertension with grossly dilated right heart chambers and severe tricuspid regurgitation arrow . Fig. 5. Measurement of pressure gradients in mitral stenosis. Tracing the...

Endometriosis Is a Career Womans Disease

The concept of endometriosis being a career woman's disease is an old wives' tale based on the premise that only driven, Type-A personalities got endometriosis. This myth is a twisted version of it's all in your head, but it adds the dig, You brought this problem on yourself by being a driven career woman. The attitude probably gained credence when career women started trying to get pregnant at a later age than traditional homemakers. If the older woman had trouble getting pregnant,...

Segment Left Ventricle Model ASE

Parasternal Long-Axis I Apical Long-Axis Parasternal Long-Axis I Apical Long-Axis Fig. 10. The American Society of Echocardiography ASE issued a 16-segment left ventricle model for wall motion assessment. The American Heart Association's AHA 17-segment model has an additional apical segment cap added to harmonize left ventricular segment nomenclature with nuclear cardiology and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A A 16-segment model of left ventricular segments ASE . B A 17-segment model of...

Bulimia Nervosa Algorithm

Emergency management of patients with eating disorders involves consideration of the complications and effects of the disorder. Nutritional rehabilitation should be the primary goal of treatment in both anorexia and bulimia. Anorexics tend to need a very gradual introduction of macronutrients. Bulimics tend to need fewer calories initially, and it is important to normalize the eating pattern. Normotensive, hypokalemic, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis is typical of purging eating-disorder...

Principles Of Hurdle Technology

The microorganisms present in a food should not be able to overcome ie, leap over the hurdles inherent in this food. This is illustrated by the so-called hurdle effect 1 , which is of fundamental importance for the preservation of intermediate-moisture foods 2 and high-moisture foods 3 , since the hurdles in a stable product control microbial spoilage and food poisoning as well as desired fermentation processes. Leistner and coworkers acknowledged that the hurdle effect illustrates only the...

Sterilization Versus Pasteurization

Thermal processing covers the broad area of food preservation technology in which heat treatments are used to inactivate microorganisms to accomplish either commercial sterilization or pasteurization. Sterilization processes are used with canning to preserve the safety and wholesomeness of ready-to-eat foods over long terms of extended storage at normal room temperature (nonrefrigerated) without additives or preservatives, and pasteurization processes are used to extend the refrigerated storage...

Grade IIV Reflux Esophagitis

The inflammatory lesions of reflux esophagitis are currently graded according to the Savary-Miller classification, which is summarized in Table 3.4. Grades I-III. Grades I-III Fig. 3.25 reflect a more or less pronounced acute attack. These grades may be complicated by superficial bleeding, but some cases initially resolve without sequelae. Grade IV. Grade IV Fig. 3.26 represents the chronic, complicated stage of reflux esophagitis, which is subject to its own dynamic. The most serious...

Bony Landmarks Femur And Tibia

The femur is the longest bone of the human body. It consists of a rounded proximal head that articulates with the acetabulum at the hip, a nearly cylindrical shaft, and a distal metaphysis that forms two large rounded condyles that articulate with the tibia. Forensic Medicine of the Lower Extremity Human Identification and Trauma Analysis Edited by J. Rich, D. E. Dean, and R. H. Powers The Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ Fig. 1. Anterior femur A Anterior view of the entire femur B The distal...

Reversal of Hartmanns procedure Figure

The reversal of the Hartmann's procedure is the second stage of the operation. To most patients this is the most important part of the whole process. The operation does carry risks and is not as easy and straightforward as reversal of a loop colostomy. Hartmann's procedure involves Figure 7.3 Reversal of Hartmann's procedure. Courtesy of Dansac Ltd. Figure 7.3 Reversal of Hartmann's procedure. Courtesy of Dansac Ltd. another laparotomy and all the inherent risk associated with major bowel...

Lateral Wind Swept Toes Deformity

In most cases, this deformity is combined with hallux valgus deformity as well as hammertoe. The wind-swept toes will remain even after correction of hallux valgus. Furthermore, the wind-swept toes are mostly combined with excessive length of the lesser metatarsals. To assess the necessity of performing lesser rays specific surgery, we perform a check test, passive hallux valgus correction which in main cases shows that the wind-swept devia tion remains in spite of the great toe correction. MTP...

Importance Of Excipient Selection In The Process Of Oral Liquid Formulation Development

When developing an oral liquid dosage formulation, consideration is first given to the characteristics of the active drug. The major challenges in developing oral liquid dosage forms are i the stability of a drug in solution, ii the solubility of a drug at the required level, and iii an acceptable taste. It is the effective use of excipients, which allows for-mulators overcome these challenges. Additionally, an excipient's compatibility with a drug in the solid state cannot infer the same...

Beck Therapy Approach

Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research, University of Pennsylvania I. Description of Treatment II. Theoretical Basis III. Efficacy IV Summary automatic thought An idea that seems to arise in one's mind spontaneously, in verbal or imaginal from. belief One's basic understandings of oneself, one's world, and other people. cognition A thought, image, rule, attitude, assumption, or belief. cognitive distortion A type of thinking error. schema A relatively stable and enduring mental...

Lymphatic Drainage of the Liver and Pathways of Lymph Node Metastasis

The lymphatic drainage of the liver consists of two major pathways the deep pathways and the superficial pathways.1 The lymphatic vessels in the liver are believed to originate in the perilobular connective tissue. The perilobular lymphatic vessels from the lobules deep inside the parenchyma drain into the deep networks along the periportal space in the Glisson's sheath toward the porta hepatis and along the hepatic veins. The perilobular lymphatic vessels from the lobules near the surface of...

Abnormalities of the V Wave

How can you recognize a higher than normal V wave at a glance ANS By recognizing a Y descent of greater amplitude than normal. 2. What are the common causes of a higher than normal jugular V wave ANS a. Excessive right atrial filling either from 1 above the tricuspid valve, as in ASD or anomalous pulmonary venous connection, or 2 below the tricuspid valve as in TR. b. Loss of compliance of the right atrium from either 1 outside the heart, i.e., constrictive pericarditis, or 2 inside the...

History of food irradiation

As noted in Table 18.1, the benefits of ionizing radiation have been known since 1905. In addition to its potential to irradiation can be used to eliminate pests such as the screw worm fly, which preys on cattle, the Mediterranean fruit fly, and the tsetse fly, by the release of sterile insects. Worries about nuclear weapons, combinedwithanantiprogressideology, began to hinder food irradiation research afterthe war. Althoughthere wasatthat time an adequate supply of gamma rays, the high-energy,...

Endometriosis in Your Lungs Coughing Chest Pain and Breathing Problems

Endometriosis in your lungs isn't common, and it can be really hard to diagnose because your doctor won't think of it when you come in coughing up blood. You may not even think to tell him you're having your period, and he's unlikely to ask. Diagnosing endometriosis in the lungs, or thoracic endometriosis, requires an inquiring mind. Even if you know you have endometriosis elsewhere, you may think that relating it to your lung problems is too far fetched. Thoracic endometriosis can cause many...

Distinction Between Perirenal and Subcapsular Collections

Abscesses or hematomas in the perirenal space and in the subcapsular region of the kidney can simulate each other and a host of other conditions closely. Identification of their specific localization may be very important in the clinical diagnosis and in determining the most appropriate therapy. Advances in establishing the characteristic features of abscesses or hematomas are based on the anatomic structures that define their collection.11 Anatomic Considerations. The renal capsule Fig. 8158...

Isovolumic Relaxation Time Echo

Pulmonary venous flow normal vs dysfunction. Doppler patterns of pulmonary venous flow. Abnormal pulmonary venous flow is characterized by blunting of the systolic wave and increased atrial reversal velocity and or duration. S, systolic flow D, diastolic flow A, atrial reversal. Fig. 10. Measuring pulmonary venous flow see Technical Issues in Measuring PV Flow section for explanation . Fig. 10. Measuring pulmonary venous flow see Technical Issues in Measuring PV Flow section for...

Echo Pulmonary Vein Doppler

Table modified from Garcia MJ, Thomas JD, Klein AL. New Doppler echocardiography applications for the study of diastolic function. J Am Coll Cardio 1998 32 865-875. Unless atrial mechanical failure present. AR, pulmonary venous peak atrial contraction reversal velocity EDT, early left ventricular filling deceleration time IVRT, isovolumic relaxation time S D, systolic-to-diastolic pulmonary venous flow ratio. Table modified from Garcia MJ, Thomas JD, Klein AL. New Doppler echocardiography...

PEG Placement Principle Indications and Contraindications

PEG provides a rapid, simple method for long-term enteral feeding. Although the method can generally be used without complications, there are still some significant risks that should be kept in mind. PEG placement is a technically simple procedure (Figs. 4.32, 4.33). A cannula is passed through the abdominal wall, and a guide suture is threaded into the stomach through the cannula. It is retrieved endoscopi-cally, withdrawn through the mouth, and used to pull the PEG tube down the esophagus and...

Mustarde Cheek Rotation Flap for Lower Eyelid Repair

A Mustarde cheek flap is a large rotation flap with its leading edge at the lateral canthus extending laterally and arching like a Tenzel flap 12 . The incision is then continued laterally to the preauricular crease toward the level of the earlobe. A wide subcutaneous undermining proceeds, the extent of which is determined by the laxity of the skin and the extent of the defect. The posterior lamella must be reconstituted and Mustarde recommends a composite graft of nasal septal cartilage and...

Food and Drug Administration Perspective on Regulation of Pharmaceutical Excipients

Division of Drug Information HFD-240 , Center for Drug Evaluation and Research CDER , United States Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland, U.S.A. The Food and Drug Administration FDA is generally recognized as one of the, if not the, premier therapeutic agent gatekeepers among nations. Consequently, the pharmaceutical and medical library stacks are laden with journals and manuals devoted to drug development and instructions on how to run the FDA gauntlet to reach the jackpot of drug...

The Limitations Of Functional Anatomical Analysis

Anatomy classifies muscles into functional groups flexors extensors, abductors adductors, etc. based on hypothesized actions. These muscle groups are useful general classifications and are commonly used in fitness education, weight training, and rehabilitation. These hypothesized muscle actions in movements and exercises are used to judge the relevance of various exercise training or rehabilitation programs. This section will show that such qualitative estimations of muscle actions are often...

The physiological rationale for using heart rate

In healthy individuals and cardiac patients, the common aim of using heart rate is to act as a marker of the physiological strain of the exercising skeletal muscles. Specific to the cardiac patient, the role of heart rate in conjunction with systolic blood pressure also acts as a key indicator of myocardial strain Froelicher and Myers, 2000 . As a marker of the body's general physiological strain during aerobic exercise, heart rate is usually described as a percentage of maximal heart rate...

Nonhuman Dna Testing And Microbial Forensics

We urge as rapid development of new systems as is consistent with their validation before they are put into general use. One's ideas must be as broad as Nature if they are to interpret Nature. (Sherlock Holmes, A Study in Scarlet) While the vast majority of forensic DNA typing performed for criminal investigations involves human DNA, it is not the only source of DNA that may be useful in demonstrating the guilt or innocence of an individual suspected of a crime (Sensabaugh and Kaye 1998)....

Taking antidepressants

At first glance, you may think this section is in the wrong chapter. How can taking prescription antidepressants help with pain Actually, antidepressants can help decrease chronic pain in several ways. The two most obvious ways are i Decreased depression, which is a common side effect of chronic pain (Check out Chapter 15 for more information about depression and your emotions.) However, there's much more to this story. Many studies have shown that some classes of antidepressants have analgesic...

Test User Qualification Levels

All reputable test publishers require test purchasers to complete a form specifying the credentials that qualify them to use the testing materials they wish to buy and certifying that the materials will be used in accordance with all applicable ethical and legal guidelines. Although the number of levels and the specific credentials required at each level differ among publishers, their qualification criteria are typically organized into at least three tiers, based roughly on a categorization of...

Mitral Valve Prolapse Overdiagnosis

During diastole, the myxomatous leaflets can be measured. Thickened leaflets more than 5 mm support the diagnosis of classic MVP. Please see companion DVD for corresponding video. Fig. 6. Bileaflet prolapse is easily visualized in the apical four-chamber A4C view. However, the mitral valve profile is normally exaggerated in this view and may lead to overdiagnosis of mitral valve prolapse left panel . Severe mitral regurgitation was present right panel . Please see companion DVD for...

Polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia polyclonal gammopathy

Pathophysiology of polyclonal gammopathy Polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia is usually due to an underlying infectious, inflammatory or neoplastic disorder such as a carcinoma. Antigen is processed by antigen-presenting cells which activate T cells to induce proliferation of antigen-specific B cells. Under the influence of cytokines such as interleukin 6 IL-6 , these B cells differentiate into antibody-producing plasma cells. These polyclonal plasma cells increase in number in the bone marrow,...

Reflexology In Disorders Of The Reproductive System

PROBLEMS OF MEN HyjJfocele Varicocele Enlarged prostate Impotence Oligospermia Hydrocele is a collection of fluid in the layers of tissue surrounding the testicle. It is characterized by a swelling in the scrotum which is not painful but only uncomfortable. Varicocele is the varicosed condition of veins in the spermatic cord, forming a scrotal swelling that feels like a 'bag of worms'. Varicocele is usually harmless. Prostatic enlargement is a common disorder of elderly males. Prostate is a...

Infected Vaginal Cuff Hematoma Cellulitis or Abscess

CLINICAL FEATURES A vaginal cuff is formed during a hysterectomy and is composed of the contiguous retroperitoneal space immediately above the vaginal apex and the surrounding soft tissue. This cuff may become infected, leading to cellulitis, hematoma, or abscess. Vaginal cuff cellulitis is a common complication following both abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy. Symptoms and signs usually present between postoperative days 3 and 5, and may begin in the hospital, or just after discharge....

Paraphimosis and Phimosis

Paraphimosis is a frequently encountered condition in the pediatric emergency department. Because of their age and lack of understanding, children have a tendency to neglect to reduce their foreskin following retraction at the time of micturition. Occasionally medical personnel will cause an iatrogenic paraphimosis by inadvertently leaving the foreskin retracted following insertion of an indwelling urethral catheter. Subsequent edema and venous congestion proximally could lead to decreased...

Disorders Involving the Foreskin

Differentiation of the genitalia occurs between the ninth and thirteenth gestational week. The prepuce of the glans penis, which forms the foreskin, is adherent to the underlying glans penis and remains so throughout gestation and during the first several years of postnatal life. The foreskin of the newborn and infant cannot easily be retracted. Doing so shears the attachments between the epithelial layers of the glans penis and the foreskin. This normal adherence of the foreskin of the infant...

Single Stage Extraction

In the case that carrier and solvent are immiscible, the concentration of solute in extract and raffinate can be graphically depicted with the equilibrium curve in the loading diagram. Together with the volumes of feed and solvent, the mass balance for the solute leads to the amount of solute that can be recovered. Whenever the miscibility of the two phases varies and is dependent on concentration, a triangular diagram is employed Fig. 2.5 . Here the three corners of the equilateral triangle...

The Three Extraperitoneal Compartments and Perirenal Fasciae

Detailed evaluation shows that the extraperitoneal region, rather than being composed of amorphous straggling mesenchyme, is distinctly demarcated by well-defined fascial planes. Figure 8-1a is an enlarged horizontal cross-section through the flank at the lower pole of the kidney. Central to the division of the extra-peritoneal region are the conspicuous anterior and posterior layers of renal fascia. The posterior renal fascia was first described by Zuckerkandl21 Fig. 8-2 and the anterior renal...

Direct Invasion from Noncontiguous Primary Tumors

Invasion Along Mesenteric Reflections The mesenteric reflections provide an important natural pathway for extension of primary neoplasms to other sites that may not be in actual contiguity.1'9 In the upper abdomen, peritoneal reflections constitute nine major ligaments and mesenteries that provide continuity of anatomic planes for the spread of malignancies Figs. 4-1 and 4-2 Table 4-2 . These not only connect intraperitoneal sites, but also extend between intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal...

Ionizing Radiation Gamma Radiation

Several studies have been reported in which ionizing radiation with 60Co was utilized to reduce the toxicity of bacterial endotoxin. Bertok and Szeberenyi 47 describe the use of a 60Co-irradiated endotoxin preparation, TOLERIN that significantly decreased the endotoxin's lethal and hypotensive effects in a dose-related manner. Endotoxin's ability to activate the complement system was also affected, and immunoadjuvant properties and ability to stimulate nonspecific resistance were retained....

The Focus The Bible

When Christians have a question about what their behavior should be, they go to the Bible, which they consider the word of God, for guidance. They may go to other sources as well e.g., ministers and counselors , but the Good Book is their primary source for answers. That is now the place to go for examples of Biblical behavior modification. Although they are not always immediately evident, the Bible is replete with examples of respondent conditioning. In fact, Christians are to associate all...

Coordination Continuum Principle

Many kinesiology professionals are interested in the coordination of movement. Coordination is commonly defined as the sequence and timing of body actions used in a movement. Unfortunately there is no universally agreed-upon definition or way to study coordination in the kinesiology literature. A wide variety of approaches has been proposed to describe the coordination of movement. Some approaches focus on the kinematics of the joint or segmental actions Hudson, 1986 Kreighbaum amp Bartels,...

Why Doe Aicar Accumulate In The Presence Of Sulfanilamide

a What is the role of p-aminobenzoate in these bacteria Hint See Fig. 18-16 . b Why does AICAR accumulate in the presence of sul-fanilamide c Why are the inhibition and accumulation reversed by addition of excess p-aminobenzoate 12. Pathway of Carbon in Pyrimidine Biosynthesis Predict the locations of 14C in orotate isolated from cells grown on a small amount of uniformly labeled 14C succinate. Justify your prediction. 13. Nucleotides As Poor Sources of Energy Under starvation conditions,...

Pathophysiology of Uncontrolled Diabetes

Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus occurs when circulating insulin levels are inadequate to lower elevated blood glucose concentrations. This condition includes a spectrum of metabolic abnormalities that range from the effects of mild insulin deficiency i.e., hyperglycemia to the effects of marked and prolonged insulinopenia i.e., ketoacidosis and fluid and electrolyte depletion . Diabetic ketoacidosis, which is the most severe acute manifestation of insulin deficiency, is almost entirely...

Toxicants in foods and their effects on nutrition

Potential sources of toxicants in food include nutrients, natural food toxicants, contaminants, and chemicals or substances intentionally added to food (food additives). One usually does not relate the ingestion of a specific nutrient with concerns about the toxicity of that nutrient. However, intakes of essential dietary chemicals from zero to excessive produce responses, from lethal because of nutrient deficiency to an optimal health response and back to lethal because of intolerably high...

Nutrient Requirements Ruminants

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Clay Center, Nebraska, U.S.A. Nutrient needs of tissues of ruminants are similar to those of nonruminants. Tissues of ruminants require oxygen, water, energy, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, and fat-and water-soluble vitamins. Dietary needs of ruminants are simpler and often cheaper than for nonruminants because of anaerobic microbial metabolism in the rumen. Microbial metabolism of dietary intake also increases the...

Products of the maillard reaction

In the Maillard reaction, reducing sugars (pentoses > hexoses) condensate with amino acids, producing a mixture of insoluble dark-brown polymeric pigments, termed melanoidins. Aldoses and ketoses react with aliphatic primary and secondary amines of amino acids and proteins to form -glycosides, which readily dehydrate to Schiff's base by the Maillard reaction (Figure 19.4). This is the basis for the well-known nonenzymatic browning reaction. In the early stages of the reaction, premel-anoidins...

Fresh Poultry Meat Composition and Nutritional Value

Poultry meat is widely accepted as a good source of high-quality protein, the B vitamins, and minerals such as iron. The fact that poultry meat is considered to be a source of lean meat and has a higher level of unsaturated fat as compared with red meat has resulted in a significant increase in poultry meat consumption in North America (Table 1) and around the world. Overall, the composition of poultry meat is dependent on species, strain, sex, age, and diet. Table 4 illustrates that species...

Reagents and Solutions

Researchers involved in the early work with plant FCM isolated protoplasts with hydrolytic enzyme mixtures, lysed the protoplasts and stained them with a fluoro-chrome, mainly DAPI. Dolezel et al. 1989 give examples of Zea mays Poaceae and Medicago sativa Fabaceae callus and leaf material. Today, the method of preparing a suspension of nuclei for measurement follows the ingeniously simple procedure of Galbraith et al. 1983 . It consists basically of i chopping up the plant material with a sharp...

Methods of food preservation

The five basic historical methods of food preservation still in use today comprise desiccation or drying, heating, freezing, fermentation, and chemical preservation (Grierson, 1997). 1. Desiccation. Desiccation (dehydration, or drying) prevents the rotting of meat, the germination of stored grains, and the sprouting of certain vegetables. It also inhibits the growth of micro-organisms, but some of these dormant microorganisms can become dangerous with rehydration of the food. The Chinese and...

Differential Extraction

Differential extraction is a modified version of the organic extraction method that separates epithelial and sperm cells Figure 3.2 . Differential extraction was first described in 1985 Gill et al. 1985 and is commonly used today by the FBI Laboratory and other forensic crime laboratories to isolate the female and male fractions in sexual assault cases that contain a mixture of male and female DNA. By separating the male fraction away from the victim's DNA profile, it is much easier to...

Complications Of Percutaneous Nephrostomy Tubes

While initially developed as emergent procedure for the relief of urinary obstruction, the use of percutaneous nephrostomy PCN has expanded beyond urinary diversion to a variety of other diagnostic procedures and therapeutic interventions. Patients with nephrostomy catheters may present to the emergency department days after placement, with complications relating either to the procedure or to the device itself. Other patients may present with complications related to the long-term use of...

Utilization Of Fruit And Vegetable Processing Wastes Via Solidstate Fermentation

Although direct disposal of fruit processing wastes in landfills has become environmentally unacceptable, some fruit processing wastes can be composted under anaerobic condition, and then used as fertilizer in landfills, because such wastes were readily degraded under anaerobic digestion conditions 57,58 . Solid-state fermentation can also be used for composting of fruit and vegetable processing wastes such as apple waste 59 and tomato pomace 60 . Composted apple pomace and other fruit and...

Poultry Manure Treatment And Utilization

Most poultry manure is used for crop and pasture fertilization as a cost-effective alternative to inorganic mineral fertilizer. Land application also recycles nutrients, enhances soil fertility, and improves soil physical properties. However, a balance must be maintained between maximum utilization of nutrients by crops and the risk of health and environmental impacts. Proper managing of poultry manure from its production through utilization is the key to maintaining this balance. This includes...

Qualitative Analysis Human Movement Diagram

A free-body diagram of a person quietly standing. The major vertical forces acting on the person gravity and ground reaction force are illustrated, while horizontal forces are small enough to ignore. Figure 2.6. A free-body diagram of a person quietly standing. The major vertical forces acting on the person gravity and ground reaction force are illustrated, while horizontal forces are small enough to ignore. body is our first example of what in mechanics is called a free-body...

Glucagon Counters Low Blood Glucose

Several hours after the intake of dietary carbohydrate, blood glucose levels fall slightly because of the ongoing oxidation of glucose by the brain and other tissues. Lowered blood glucose triggers secretion of glucagon and decreases insulin release (Fig. 23-27). Glucagon causes an increase in blood glucose concentration in several ways (Table 23-4). Like epinephrine, it stimulates the net breakdown of liver glycogen FIGURE 23-26 The well-fed state the lipogenic liver. Immediately after a...

Ice Cream Composition And Physical Properties

Ice cream mix contains a minimum of 10 milkfat and 20 total milk solids, except when fruit, nuts, chocolate, or other bulky flavors are added. If bulky flavors are added, the minimum milkfat is 8.8 and 16.6 milk solids. According to U.S. Federal Standards, ice cream must weigh at least 4.5 lb gal. The minimum gallon weight permits the incorporation of air sufficient to roughly double the volume (or 100 overrun). Percent overrun is defined as weight of 1 gal mix - weight of 1 gal ice cream...

Anatomy and physiology of diverticular disease

Diverticular disease is a twentieth century disease that results in part from changes in diet, age and lifestyle although there is little research to support this Bassotti et al., 2003 . It is one of the most frequent diseases seen in gastroenterology departments. Diverticula are small herniations in the bowel wall they can occur anywhere in the bowel. The diverticular pouches usually appear in the descending and sigmoid colon Stollman and Rashkin, 1999 , frequently manifesting at the weakest...

The role of dairy products in preventing dental caries

Milk is a biological fluid providing significant nutrients, immunological protection, and biologically active peptides to both infants and adults Clare and Swaisgood, 2000 . Nutritionists have consistently recommended consumption of several servings of milk and other dairy products on a daily basis for all age groups. Despite this recommendation, fluid milk consumption globally has declined over the past decade. However, consumers have continued to ingest large amounts of dairy products...

Principles of immunoelectron microscopy

Immunoelectron microscopy can be defined as any technique that uses antibodies, or molecules that interact with antibodies for example, protein A or protein G , in conjunction with electron microscopy to localize ultrastructurally antigens or antibodies in cells and tissues. In addition, a number of other biological macromolecules whose specific ligand-bind-ing properties are known can be used for example, lectins . Immunoelectron microscopy was a term that was originally confined to studies...

Bile Secretion And Gall Bladder Function

Bile is responsible for the principal digestive functions of the liver. The presence of bile in the small intestine is necessary for the digestion and absorption of lipids. The problem of the insolubility of fats in water is solved by the constituents of bile. The bile salts and other organic components of bile are responsible in part for emulsifying fat so that it can be digested by pancreatic lipase. The bile acids also take part in solubilizing the digestion products into micelles. Micellar...

Lymphatic Drainage of the Stomach and Pathways of Lymph Node Metastasis

The lymphatic drainage of the stomach consists of intrinsic and extrinsic systems. The intrinsic system in cludes intramural submucosal and subserosal networks, and the extrinsic system forms lymphatic vessels outside the stomach and generally follows the course of the arteries in various ligaments around the stomach.9,10 These lymphatic vessels drain into the lymph nodes at nodal stations in the corresponding ligaments and drain into the central collecting nodes at the root of the cellac axis...

Nature Identical and Artificial Flavouring Substances

Since ancient times the delicious taste and aroma of foods, herbs, spices and essential oils have been inspiring human beings in different cultures, geographical locations and ages 1 . Over thousands of years people have developed a wealth of recipes, techniques and technologies for food preparations, mainly driven by flavour, comprising aroma, taste, texture, viscosity, temperature as well as cooling, tingling and pungency 2 . Starting from distillation and extraction in the world of ancient...

Applications Of Hurdle Technology

The intelligent application of hurdle technology for a mild but efficient food preservation is advancing worldwide in industrialized as well as in developing countries. Some examples and trends are presented next. Deliberate and intelligent hurdle technology for food preservation started about 20 years ago in Germany with meat products. First it was used for the gentle preservation of mildly heated, freshlike meats storable without refrigeration 4 . In the meantime, several categories of these...

Analogue Behavioral Observation

Analogue behavioral observation is a behavioral assessment method in which a clinician observes a client's behavior in a contrived environment e.g., a waiting room, play room, clinical setting to assess variables hypothesized to influence behavior. Although analogue assessment is a direct measure of behavior, the target behavior is observed outside of the individual's natural environment. A special section of the journal Psychological Assessment Vol. 13, No. 1 is devoted to a discussion of...

Cognitive Style Models

Construct of cognitive learning style may be defined as the relatively stable individual preferences for perceptual and conceptual organization and categorization of the external environment (cf., the early laws principles of abstraction Moore, 1910). The terms cognitive style and cognition have been introduced and reintroduced into the psychological literature over a period of time extending back to the German psychologists at the turn of the 20th century. Also, the Swiss psychologist Carl...

The History of Diverticular Disease

The written history of bowel-associated problems can be traced as far back as the Book of Judges in the Bible showing that the pre-Christian Israelites were well aware of abdominal injuries and problems (Black, 2000). But, even before the Bible recordings, the Egyptians in 2000 bc recognized disorders of the bowel, although writings often recorded on papyrus were not specific as to what these may have been. The Greeks and Romans were not to be left out in their writings on bowel problems...

Emulsion Science In The Food Industry

Many natural and processed foods consist either partly or wholly as emulsions or have been in an emulsified state at some time during their production such foods include milk, cream, butter, margarine, fruit beverages, soups, cake batters, mayonnaise, cream liqueurs, sauces, desserts, salad cream, ice cream, and coffee whitener Friberg and Larsson 1997, Krog et al. 1983, Jaynes 1983, Dickinson and Stainsby 1982, Dickinson 1992, Swaisgood 1996 . Emulsion-based food products exhibit a wide...

Echocardiography Evaluation of Aortic Regurgitation

Reimold, MD Echocardiography Assessment in Patients With Aortic Regurgitation Assessment of Aortic Valve Morphology Anatomy of Aortic Valve Echocardiographic Evaluation of Aortic Valve Morphology Impact of Aortic Regurgitation on the Left Ventricle Doppler Echocardiographic Evaluation of the Patient With Aortic Regurgitation Quantitative Measures of Aortic Regurgitation Suggested Reading Aortic regurgitation occurs when a fraction of the blood ejected from the...

The Anger Episode Model

Kassinove and Tafrate 2002 developed a five-stage anger episode model to guide treatment Figure 1 . They recommend that the model be used as a reference point for joint practitioner-patient understanding of anger as well as an idiographic assessment strategy. Elements of the model have been validated by Kassinove, Sukhodolsky, Tsytsarev, and Solovyova 1997 and Tafrate, Kassinove, and Dundin 2002 . Triggers. Each episode begins with a triggering event. These triggers are usually unwanted...

Unipolar Limb Leads aVR aVL aVF

Unipolar leads record the difference between an active limb electrode and an indifferent zero potential electrode at the centre of Einthoven's triangle Figure HE.11 . These signals are of lower amplitude than other leads and require increased amplification hence referred to as augmented leads aVR the augmented unipolar right arm lead faces the heart from the right side and is usually orientated to the cavity of the heart. Therefore, all the deflections P, QRS and T are normally negative in this...

Massai Girls Masturbate

To the Maasai, sexuality is a physical act erepa, to cling between men and women, or between girls and adolescent boys. Homosexuality and masturbation are virtually non-existent. In fact, the former is an act beyond their comprehension. Whenever the topic is discussed, it raises vehement reactions. Masturbation is practiced by young uncircumcized boys they are also said to relieve their sexual urges by copulating with donkeys. However, these acts are considered to be activities of children and...

Manipulation in the Distal Small Intestine

The basic insertion technique for the distal small intestine is to advance the endoscope tip with minimum insertion force so the endoscope forms large concentric circles which are formed by stretching the mesentery in a fan shape around the fixed part of the mesentery on the retroperitoneum Figs. 8.5, 8.6 . As described above, the operator should avoid forcible insertion of a sharply angled endoscope. Reducing the angle as much as possible and swinging the tip allows effective insertion. The...

Blaming Mom Is endometriosis hereditary

Research shows that endometriosis has a family link because it tends to cluster in families. If you have a first-degree relative a mother or sister with endometriosis , your risk of having endometriosis is seven to ten times higher than your friend who has no endometriosis in her family. Not only are you more likely to have endometriosis if it runs in your family, but your disease is also likely to be more severe than endometriosis found in women without a family history of the disease. Aren't...

Uses of Reproductive Cloning

What uses might there be, or what reasons might someone have, for producing a human being through cloning What follows is a survey of a number of possible uses of this procedure, some of which are obviously more problematic than others. The ethical issues that have been or might be raised regarding the possible uses of reproductive cloning will then be discussed. One of the probable primary uses, if cloning does become a reality, is for the treatment of fertility problems. For example, if the...

Inherited Peripheral Neuropathies

The peripheral myelin protein-22 PMP22 is a very hydrophobic glycoprotein and is highly expressed in compact PNS myelin. It has been mapped to the previously defined Tr locus on mouse chromosome 11. Comparison of marker genes on mouse chromosome 11 and human chromosome 17 revealed that PMP22 was also a candidate gene for the most common form of autosomal-dominant demyelinating hereditary peripheral neuropathy in humans, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A CMT1A . Indeed, the entire PMP22 gene...

Libby Kumin PhD Cccslp

Children and adolescents with Down syndrome are at high risk for speech and language difficulties based on anatomic, physiological, and cognitive factors (Kumin, 1994, 1999). There is a high incidence of speech and language problems, particularly in the areas of intelligibility of speech and conversational skills. Speech is an overlaid function on the same structures and movements used for the biological functions of respiration, self-regulation, and feeding. Speech is an output system,...

Symptoms And Classification A The Nature of Communication Behavior

When an individual generates an idea that he or she wants to verbalize, certain physiologic and acoustic events must take place in order for it to be transformed into words and sentences. The message is converted into linguistic form at the listener's end. The listener, in turn, fits the auditory information into a sequence of words and sentences that are ultimately understood. The system of symbols that are strung together into sentences expressing our thoughts and the understanding of those...

The Bangor Dyslexia Test II

Combining a clinical approach with a statistical one was not always easy. At an early stage in the research I presented a paper to my colleagues with the title 'How Do I Score the crikey ' The situation which I envisaged was one in which a subject, presented, for instance, with a request to say the months of the year, responded, 'Oh, crikey ' - and then proceeded to say the months of the year correctly. Was I to ignore the 'crikey' on the grounds that it was a one-off remark which could not be...

History And Overview Of Cognitive Distortions

Cognitive distortions were originally defined by Beck (1967) as the result of processing information in ways that predictably resulted in identifiable errors in thinking. In his work with depressed patients, Beck defined six systematic errors in thinking arbitrary inference selective abstraction overgeneralization magnification and minimization personalization and absolutistic, dichotomous thinking. Years later, Burns (1980) renamed and extended Beck's cognitive distortions to ten types...

Trance States A Theoretical Model Winkelman

Imagery in healing Shamanism and modern medicine. Boston, MA New Science Library Shambhala. Bird-David, N. 1999 . Animism revisited Personhood, environment and relational epistemology. Current Anthropology, 40, 67-91. Boddy, J. 1994 . Spirit possession revisited Beyond instrumentality. Annual Review of Anthropology, 23, 407-434. Bourguignon, E. 1976 . Possession. San Francisco, CA Chandler and Sharpe. Castillo, R. 1991 . Divided consciousness and enlightenment in Hindu...

References On Preservation And Storage Of Food With Publishing

ALLI I (1993), 'Quality control of MAP products', in Parry R T, Principles and Applications of Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Food, London, Blackie Academic & Professional, an imprint of Chapman & Hall, 101-114. AMANATIDOU A (2001) High oxygen as an additional factor in food preservation, PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. ARANGO H, VAILLANT F, VELEZ C, MILLAN P and REYNES M (1999), 'Evaluation of post-harvest performance of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruits...

Speculating on How Endometriosis Develops The Most Common Theories

Several prevalent theories exist as to why endometriosis develops in some women and not in others. Some days you may not really care how it got there you just want it to go away But understanding how a disease works is the first step to overcoming the problems it can bring. In this section, we review the most common theories. Migrating out the tubes Retrograde menstruation Every woman with a uterus has endometrial cells cells that line the inside of the uterus and support a pregnancy . Studies...

What Is The Importance Of Relatively Inactivation Circulating Hormones

ATP and Phosphocreatine as Sources of Energy for Muscle During muscle contraction, the concentration of phosphocreatine in skeletal muscle drops while the concentration of ATP remains fairly constant. However, in a classic experiment, Robert Davies found that if he first treated muscle with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene p. 97 , the concentration of ATP declined rapidly while the concentration of phosphocreatine remained unchanged during a series of contractions. Suggest an explanation. 2....

Activationarousal Theory

Term activation theory was most prominently used by the American physiological psychologist Donald B. Lindsley 1907-2003 as a working theory for emotion. The concept activate means not only to make active but also to render capable of reacting. At one end of a continuum of activation is a strong reaction to stimulation, and at the other end is the condition of quiescence, sleep, or death, with little or no reaction to stimulation. The activation arousal theory developed from work in the area of...

Endometriosis in Your Brain Rare but Possible

The idea of endometriosis ending up in the place farthest from its initial source may sound impossible, but it's true endometriosis can, in rare cases, end up in your brain. So no matter what some people think, endometriosis is definitely not just in your head. Obviously, more than retrograde menstruation must send endometrial tissue all the way up to your head, so endometrial tissue must arrive there via one of the other theories of endometriosis transmission. See Chapter 4 for the theories on...

Three classic US cases 1979 and Vijay Soman 1981 and John Darsee 1985 and Robert Slutsky

Soman was an assistant professor of medicine at the Yale School of Medicine, who plagiarised parts of a manuscript sent in 1978 by the New England Journal of Medicine for peer review to his boss, Philip Felig, who passed the job on to him. Subsequently Soman and Felig published an article on the same topic, insulin binding in anorexia nervosa, in the American Journal of Medicine. Accused of plagiarism and conflict of interest, Felig seemed to settle the difficulties by stating that the work had...

Ongoing Ethical Concerns in the Practice of Behavior Therapy

Ethical practice has been a priority among behavior therapists. Nonetheless, concerns continue to arise. Particularly in cases where, at least potentially, the application of a technique can inflict pain, or where clients are relatively powerless or are involuntarily the subject of treatment, areas of ethical concern still remain. USE OF AVERSION PROCEDURES. The use of aversion procedures the application of subjectively unpleasant stimulation contingent upon performance of an undesirable...

Overview of Pathological Findings in the Duodenum

Table 2.26 Pathological findings in the duodenum Table 2.26 Pathological findings in the duodenum Fig. 3.136 Polypoid lesions in the duodenal bulb Fig. 3.136 Polypoid lesions in the duodenal bulb Fig. 3.139 Inflammation and necrosis in the duodenum of a patient with pancreatitis Fig. 3.139 Inflammation and necrosis in the duodenum of a patient with pancreatitis Duodenal ulcer is an epithelial defect in the bulbar or descending duodenum that penetrates the muscularis mucosae and extends into the...

Economic Importance Of Coffee

Coffee, a significant factor in international trade for about 185 years, is among the leading agricultural products in international trade along with wheat, corn, and soybeans. The total world exportable production of green coffee in the 1997-1998 growing season is approximately 81.7 million bags Table 1 . This compares with a total production of about 107.5 million bags, the difference being internal consumption. Table 2 shows imports and consumption data. The International Coffee Organization...

Biocontrol of Powdery Mildews

Powdery mildew fungi are obligate parasites of plants that derive nutrients and water from their host, thereby reducing growth and yield through the acquisition of photosynthates. The fungi penetrate into the epidermis directly and establish a parasitic relationship with the plant host through the formation of haustoria, the nutrient-absorbing structures. Mycelial growth and sporulation occur on the surface of leaves and stems, resulting in a white fuzzy mildew appearance. Over the years,...

Normal Anatomy of the Cerebral Arterial Vasculature

Although the brain accounts for just over 2 of the body's total weight, it receives nearly 20 of the cardiac output. Whereas larger cerebral vessels are influenced by a balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, vascular tone in medium and small cerebral vessels is altered primarily by the mechanism of autoregulation. Blood flow is tightly regulated at the arterial level to maintain an average cerebral blood flow CBF of 50 ml 100 g min. Smooth muscle cells within the cerebral vessels...

The Operated Stomach Endoscopically Identifiable Lesions and Diseases

It is very common to find erythematous and sometimes bile-tinged mucosa just proximal to the stoma in the operated stomach. Histologically, inflammatory mucosal changes are found in 60-90 of cases. It is likely that the reflux of bile and alkaline pancreatic juice has causal significance. The degree of macroscopic and histological changes does not correlate with the severity of the complaints, and many patients are asymptomatic. The endoscopic picture is characterized by edema, erythema, and...