Kpl

A, see Adenine AA, see Afferent arterioles A bands, cardiac muscle cells, 179 Abdominal muscles, in breathing, 278, 318-319

Abducens nerve, extraocular muscles, 862 Absence seizures, 902 Absolute refractory period action potentials, 86-87 heart, 181 Absorption, see also Reabsorption balance with secretion, 555, 555f calcium, 544-545 capillary fluid movement, 239 carbohydrates, 534-535 chloride by intestines, 551, 551f definition, 466 fat-soluble vitamins, 544 fluid by leakey epithelia, 553f fluid in peritbular capillaries, 348-349 glucose, galactose, fructose, 534f intestinal, calcium, 681, 689 iron, 545f, 545-546 isosmotic volume absorption, 378 lipids, 540, 540f pathway, 532-533 potassium, 547-548 proteins, 536-537f sodium, 550f, 550-551 sodium chloride, 396f solute pathway, 532f transcellular and paracellular routes,

549-550 transport processes, 533 water, 548, 552f, 552-553 water-soluble vitamins, 543-544 Absorptive reserve capacity, 549 Accessory olfactory bulb, and vomeronasal organ, 854 Accessory pathway, effect on PR interval, 198-199

Accessory respiratory muscles, 278 Acclimatization, high altitude, 327-329 Accommodation reflex, 828

Accomodation, action potentials, 87 ACE, see Angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE inhibitors, see Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors Acetylcholine in acid secretion, 497 autonomic nervous system, 146 end-plate potential mechanisms, overview, 104

gastric secretion, 507f iontophoretic application, 103f iontophoric application, EPP comparison, 104f neuromuscular junction, 102-104 pacemaker activity, 185 in pepsin secretion, 511 SA nodal cell effects, 185f synthesis and degradation, 152f Acetylcholine receptor antagonists, 327 ligand-gated, structure, 105-106 model, 105f myasthenia gravis, 120 Acetylcholinesterase, 103 Acetyl CoA carboxylase function, 642 insulin effects, 651 ACh, see Acetylcholine Achalasia, 485 Acid-base balance, blood bicarbonate-pH diagram, 296-297 disturbance diagnosis, 297-298 Henderson-Hasselbach equation, 295-296 metabolic acidosis, 297 metabolic alkalosis, 297 respiratory acidosis, 297 respiratory alkalosis, 297 Acid-base balance, during exercise, 935-936 Acid-base balance, kidney anion gap, 457

bicarbonate generation, 452-454 bicarbonate reabsorption, 451-452 buffer role, 448-450 clinical disturbance overview, 454-455 common disturbances, 458-461

metabolic acidosis, 456-457 metabolic alkalosis, 457-458 plasma bicarbonate overview, 450-451 pulmonary regulation of CO2, 450 respiratory acidosis, 455-456 respiratory alkalosis, 456 Acid-base status, steps 1 to 4, 459f, 460f Acidemia, 454 Acid-labile subunit, 707 Acidosis acid-base disturbances, 460 characteristics, 455-456 kidney effects, 334 plasma bicarbonate threshold, 452f Acinar cells pancreas, 514, 516f, 520f salivary glands, 499 Acinus characteristics, 265 pancreas, 514

primary saliva production, 497 salivary glands, 499 Acrosomal reaction, 759 ACTH, see Adrenocorticotropic hormone Actin biochemical interactions with myosin,

125-126, 138-141 overview, 124, 138 F-Actin, 239 Action potentials absolute and relative refractory period,

86-87 accomodation, 87 cardiac cells, 180f cardiac muscle, 179 compound, recording, 96f contractile cell, 179f extracellular recordings, 72 extracellular voltage creation, 188 giant squid axon, 77f Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation, 78 intracellular recording, 73f, 73-74 ion channels underlying, specificity, 85 muscle cells, 135 muscle fibers, 865

Essential Medical Physiology, Third Edition

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