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Beta Switch Program

Beta Switch Program by Sue Heintze

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C, see Cytosine

CH2O, see Free water clearance

Cosm, see Osmolal clearance

Caffeine, 509

Calcarine fissure, 820

Calcitonin biosynthesis, secretion, metabolism, 691 Ca2+ regulation, 680, 698f cells of origin, 691 physiologic actions, 691-693 in pig plasma, 694f secretion regulation, 693 Calcitonin gene related peptide characteristics, 691 mRNA splicing, 692f Calcitriol, see 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol Calcitropic hormones hypercalcemic challenge response, 698 hypocalcemic challenge response, 698 Calcium absorption, 544-545

in actin-myosin interactions, 138-139

body distribution, 680-681

bone, 681-684

calcitonin, 691-693

calcitropic hormones, 698

cytoplasmic, cycling, 135

daily balance, 682f effect on gastric secretion, 509

excitation-contraction coupling, 182-183

exocytosis, 35

handing in cardiac cells, 182f hormones affecting balance, 698-699

insulin regulation, 655

intestinal absorption, 681

intestinal transport, 696f intracellular levels, 139f kidney, 443-445, 684-685

neurotransmitter release, 107f overall regulation, 698f parathyroid glands and hormone, 685-686

parathyroid hormone actions, 687-689

parathyroid hormone mechanisms, 687

parathyroid hormone processing, 686-687

phosphorous balance, 685

PTH and calcitonin concentrations, 694f

PTH secretion regulation, 690-691

reabsorption, 437

distal nephron, 689f nephron, 444f, 445f parathyroid hormone actions, 689 regulation overview, 680 removal from cytosol, 183 in renal failure, 445 second messenger concept, 25-26 skeletal muscle, shock response, 130f smooth and striated muscle, 139f in striated muscle, 126-127 in synaptic transmission, 107f in transmitter release, 106-110 vitamin D, 693-697 Calcium channels action potential plateau phase, 180 intracellular messengers, 184f Calcium pump, 183 Calmodulin in actin-myosin interactions, 139 second messenger concept, 25-26 Cambrian sea, 4

cAMP, see Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Cancellous bone, 682 Candidate hormones characteristics, 474-475 function, 470 Cannon-Bard theory, 899 Capacitance arterial and venous, 217 definition, 167

membrane, propagation velocity, 91 Capillaries cross section schematic diagram, 237f fluid movement across, 239 glomerular, see Glomerular capillary glomerular capillary tuft, 345f isosmotic capillary plasma, 417f juxtacapillary receptors, 326 peritubular capillary, 333, 335, 348-349, 434f precapillary sphincter, 236

pulmonary capillary, 269, 270f, 303f, 304f,

304-305 renal capillary, 365f transcapillary solute exchange, 237-241 Capillary exchange interstitial edema, 242-244 lymphatic drainage system, 241-242 lymph flow and interstitial forces, 242-244 microcirculation, 236-237 transcapillary solute exchange, 237-241 Capillary filtration lymph flow and interstitial forces, 242 permeability, 239-240 Capillary fluid shift mechanism, 233 Capillary hydrostatic pressure, 239 Capillary pressure, 347 Capillary transit time, 304 Capillary wall hydrostatic forces, 240 osmotic forces, 240-241 Capping receptors, 21 Carbamino compounds, 293 Carbohydrates absorption, 534-535 assimilation abnormalities, 535 digestion, 533-534f in exercise, 933, 934 metabolism, 601, 647f, 648f overview, 533 Carbon dioxide acid-base balance, 448-450 alveolar ventilation equation, 301 blood, 292, 293-294 blood and tissues, 295f and cerebral blood flow, 252f diffusion limitation effects, 314 elimination from body, 260f exchange, 312, 314 hypoventilation effects, 314 during pregnancy, 964f, 964-965 pulmonary regulation, 450 retention in chronic lung disease, 330 ventilatory responses, 321-322 Carbonic anhydrase arterial chemoreceptors, 321 CO2 in blood, 293 gastric secretion, 505 Carbon monoxide, 292

18-Carbon series, adrenocortical hormones, 612

19-Carbon series, adrenocortical hormones, 612

21-Carbon series, adrenocortical hormones, 611-612 Cardiac accelerator area, 227 Cardiac cells action potentials, 180f calcium handling, 182f excitation origination, 176-177 gap junctions, 177-179 ionic flux, 181-182 Cardiac center, 227 Cardiac cycle associated events, 203f blood flow and pressure, 250f overview, 202-203 phases, 204f Cardiac depressant, 234 Cardiac function curve cardiac output change, 218-221 exercise effects, 223 intrathoracic pressure effects, 221 and vascular function curve, 218f venous pressure, 218 Cardiac glycosides, 432-433 Cardiac inhibitory area, 227 Cardiac muscle action potentials, 179 catecholamines, 184 diversity and specialization, 179-180 excitation, 128

excitation-contraction coupling, 127 failure, 210

mechanical response in vitro, 132-133 mechanical response in vivo, 134 mechanical responses, 133f similarity to other muscles, 176

sodium pump inhibition, 184-185 stimulation frequency, 183-184 Cardiac output in circulatory shock, 946 definition, 159 distribution, 246f in exercise, 937, 938f function curve changes, 218-221 in heart failure, 942f heart rate effect, 221-222 during pregnancy, 957, 957f regulation, 222-223 venous pressure, 216-218 Cardiogenic shock, 948 Cardiovascular system blood flow distribution, 159f blood vessel wall forces, 171 in exercise, 937

flow and volume distribution, 171-172 gravity effects, 172-174 overview, 158-159 oxygen transport, 306-307 during pregnancy, 963f pressures, 168, 203-204 pressures and resistances, 168 pulsatility of arterial pressure, 169-171 Carnitine acyl transferase, 642 Carotid baroreceptor reflex, 227 Carotid baroreceptors, 225 Carotid bodies, 231

Carotid body chemoreceptors, see Arterial chemoreceptors Carotid sinuses, 227 Carotid sinus reflex, 228f Carrier-mediated membrane transport, see also Diffusion active transport, 59-62 characteristics overview, 57-58 facilitated diffusion, 59 model, 59f nature of carriers, 58 overview, 57 CART, see Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript Cartilage, airways, 265 Catecholamines cardiac muscle, 184 characteristics, 631 degradation, 633f pacemaker activity, 186 SA nodal cell effects, 186f storage, 632-633 vascular responsiveness, 626 Cation channels, second messenger concept, 25

Caudad area, motility, 487-488 Cauda equina brain vesicle development, 781 spinal cord, 799 Caudate, 881 Caveolae receptors, 21 Cavital digestion, 531 CBG, see Corticosteroid binding globulin CCK, see Cholecystokinin

Cecum, 492-493

Cellular communication, 20f

Cellular function gene expression regulation, 12-17 protein degradation, 17 protein function regulation, 17-18 specialization overview, 12 Cellular responses examples, 20

target cells, see Target cell responses Cell volume, 67-70 Center receptive fields, 815 Central apneas, 327 Central auditory pathways composition, 844 relay nuclei, 843-844 structure, 846f Central chemoreceptors function, 315

ventilatory responses, 319-320 Central command regional blood flow, 938 ventilation and acid-base, 935 Central gustatory pathways innervation, 858 processing, 858-859 Central gyrus, 877 Central nervous system in esophageal motility, 485 long-term potentiation, 913 metabotropic receptor-produced synaptic potentials, 117-121 postsynaptic mechanisms, 114-117 salivary gland regulation, 502f synaptic potential mechanisms, 113 synaptic transmission, overview, 112 thyroid hormones, 597-598 Central pattern generator, 317 Central sensory pathways, 798 Central vestibular pathways characteristics, 836-838 schematic diagram, 837f Central visual pathways left and right visual hemifields, 817-820 overview, 815-817 retinal projections, 820 Centromedian nucleus, 882 Cerebellar ataxia, 895 Cerebellar cortex, 894f Cerebellum anatomy, 892f basal ganglia connection comparison, 891f cellular circuits, 890, 895 cerebrocerebellum, 890 connections, 889-890 descending motor tracts, 876 in eye movement, 829 spinocerebellum, 890 vestibulocerebellum, 890 Cerebral aqueduct, 781 Cerebral circulation, 251-252 Cerebral cortex, 819f Cerebral ischemia, 231 Cerebral spinal fluid central chemoreceptors, 319 circulation, 783f Cerebrocerebellum characteristics, 890 connections, 893f Purkinje cells, 889 Cerebrospinal fluid brain vesicle development, 781 nervous system, 779 Cervical segment, 799 CF, see Cystic fibrosis C-fibers, 326

CFTR, see Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator cGMP, see Cyclic guanosine monophosphate CGRP, see Calcitonin gene related peptide Chagas' disease, 495 Chaperones, 16-17

Characteristic frequency, in pitch perception, 845

Charged solutes, 37

Chemical force, diffusion potential, 47

Chemical senses gustatory system overview, 854-855 olfactory bulb, 852 olfactory cortex, 852-854 olfactory receptors, 850-852 overview, 849-850 Chemical signals definition, 19 exocytosis, 34-35 message clearance, 35 overview, 33

secretory granules and vesicles, 33-34 Chemical synapses cytoplasmic discontinuity, 98 end-plate potential, 99-101 neuromuscular junction, 98-99 Chemical thermogenesis, 927 Chemical transmitters

Ca2+ role in release, 106-110 neurotransmitters, see Neurotransmitters Chemoreceptor cells CO2 changes, 319f pressure sensitivities, 320f Chemoreceptors blood pressure control, 231 function, 795-796 as nociceptors, 794 in reflexes, 324 respiratory reflexes, 324f ventilation control, 316 Chenodeoxycholic acid, 522 Chest exploration, unipolar leads, 194 Chewing reflex, 481-482 Chief cells, see Glomus cells Chloride absorption by intestines, 551, 551f bile concentration, 526 fluid compartment ionic composition, 5 pancreatic secretion, 514-515 in saliva, 500 secretion, 553f Chloride shift, see Hamburger shift

Cholecalciferol, 693 Cholecystokinin caudad area motility, 488 characteristics, 472 dietary regulation, 532 function, 470 gastric emptying, 488-489 lipid digestion, 538 orad area motility, 487 pancreatic secretion, 517-518 in receptive relaxation, 486 structure, 473f Choleretic substances, 524 Cholesterol bile, 523, 525

conversion to pregnenolone, 610f digestion, 538 gallstones, 527 processing, 541 Cholesterol ester hydrolase, 539 Cholic acid, 522 Cholinergic receptors, 148 Chorionic gonadotropin, 723 Chorionic plate, 954 Choroid plexus brain vesicle development, 781 development, 783f Chromaffin cells characteristics, 631 chemical signals, 33 Chromatic aberration, 824 Chromosome, 13 Chronic lung disease, 329-330 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characteristics, 313 definition, 329-330 Chylomicrons formation, 540f, 541-543 function, 530 lipid absorption, 540 Chyme, 510

Chymotrypsinogen, 536 Cilia, airway defense mechanisms, 274 Ciliary ganglion, intrinsic eye muscles, 827 Ciliary tufts, 852 Ciliated cells, 265 Cingulate cortex in emotion, 899 and Papez circuit, 897 Cingulum, see Cingulate cortex Circadian rhythm, 629 Circulation bronchial circulation, 268-269, 309 cerebral circulation, 251-252 coronary circulation, 249-251 cutaneous circulation, 254 enterohepatic circulation, 498, 524, 598 fetal circulation, 254-255f maternal, see Maternal circulation microcirculation, 236f, 236-237 model, 216f pulmonary, see Pulmonary circulation splanchnic circulation, 253-254 systemic circulation, 159

Circulatory shock blood pressure as indicator, 947 from cardiac output, 946 causes, 946

fluid resuscitation, 947-948 heart and brain defense, 947 progressiveness, 946-947 specific forms, 948 Clara cells, 265-266 Classical conditioning «-conditioning comparison, 910 example, 909f types, 909-910 Clearance basic concept, 366-367 definition, 361 endogenous substances, 367 inulin, 366f Clicks, 201 Climbing fibers, 895 Closest fit theory, 52 CM, see Centromedian nucleus CNS, see Central nervous system CNT cells, see Connecting tubule cells Cobalamin, see Vitamin B12 Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript leptin in fuel storage, 677 negative feedback control, 677f Cochlea basilar membrane function, 841 characteristics, 839 components, 840 oval window function, 841 structure, 843f Cochlear amplification, 843 Cochlear nerve, lesions, 838 Codon, RNA processing overview, 14 Cold, responses to, 927-928 Cold-induced tissue damage, 930 Cold receptors, 793 Colipase, lipid digestion, 539 Collagen, in breathing, 280 Collateral vessels, coronary circulation, 251 Collecting lymphatics, 242 Colloidal osmotic pressure afferent and efferent arteriolar resistance changes, 356-357 autoregulation, 354 definition, 343

effect on junctional complexes, 379f glomerular capillaries, 348, 349f glomerular filtration barrier, 350 glomerular ultrafiltration, 346-347 Colon

K+ secretion, 552f mass movement, 493f Color-opponent pathways, 824-826 Color-specific blobs characteristics, 821 orientation-specific columns, 821 Color vision color-opponent pathways, 824-826 cone photopigments, 821-824

Colostrum, lactation, 770 Columns of Corti, 842

Common bundle, see Atrioventricular bundle Compact bone, see Cortical bone Compensated metabolic acidosis, 297, 457 Compensated metabolic alkalosis, 297 Compensated respiratory acidosis, 297 Compensated respiratory alkalosis, 297 Compensation in circulatory shock, 946 premature heart contractions, 199 Competitive inhibition, carrier-mediated transport, 58 Complementary base pairs, DNA structure overview, 13 Complete heart block, 178, 198 Compliance in breathing, 279-280 definition, 277

pressure-volume relationship, 206 Concentric hypertrophy definition, 944 heart structure, 945f Conditioned stimulus, 909 Conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus interval, see Interstimulus interval Conductance catheter end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, 212

pressure-volume relationship, 212f Conductile cells, 176 Conducting zone, 265 Conduction in body temperature regulation, 923-924 definition, 921 myelinated axons, 93 Cones cellular features, 811f function, 807 photopigments, 821-824f specialized features, 809-810 Congenital nephrotic syndrome, 351 Congestion, in heart failure, 942 Congestive heart failure digitalis treatment, 184 heart failure comparison, 943 Conjugate movements, eye, 829 Connecting peptide, in insulin processing, 644 Connecting tubule cells aldosterone effects, 400f aldosterone receptors, 400 aquaporin-2 insertion, 410f Ca2+ reabsorption, 445f distal convoluted tubule, 392 kidney, 337 K+ secretion, 443f K+ transport, 441-442 Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion, 398f transport, 396-397 vasopressin cellular action, 409-410 Consensual pupillary light reflex, 828 Conservation of mass, respiratory system, 263 Consistent volume units, Na+ concentration, 362

Consolidation, in learning and memory, 906 Constipation gastrointestinal motility, 495 large intestine motility, 494 during pregnancy, 966 Contact digestion, 531 Contractile cells action potential phase, 179f definition, 176 tetrodotoxin effect, 180f ultrastructure, 178f Contractility assessment, 210-212 cardiac muscle, 133 cardiac output effect, 218-219 stroke volume effect, 208 velocity-related indices, 211 Contraction, skeletal muscle and contraction, 134f shock response, 130f Contralateral hemiplegia, 830 Convection in body heat regulation, 925 in body temperature regulation, 923 effect on heat loss, 925f as gas exchange principle, 300 respiratory system, 263 Converting enzyme, 344 COP, see Colloidal osmotic pressure COPD, see Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Corona radiata, 741

Coronary circulation regulation, 249-251 Corpus callosum, 820 Corpus luteum characteristics, 741 function, 748 Corpus striatum, 881 Cortical bone, 682

Cortical cells, receptive field properties, 822f Cortical collecting duct kidney, 337 transport, 396-397 Cortical ocular dominance columns, 820-821 Corticobulbar tract, 879 Corticofugal projections, 875f Corticosteroid binding globulin, 615 Corticosterone, 611-612 Corticotropin-releasing hormone anterior pituitary control, 582 function, 580

glucocorticoid secretion regulation,

627-630 in parturition, 767-768 Corticotropin-releasing hormone binding protein, 768 Cortisoid, 667 Cortisol anti-inflammatory actions, 625f in 21-carbon series, 612 function, 607, 608 glucose effects, 665f plasma concentrations, 629f production block, 631f

Cortisol-cortisone shuttle mineralocorticoid specificity, 618 schematic diagram, 612f Cortisone in 21-carbon series, 612 in rat growth, 718f Cough reflex characteristics, 324 elicitation, 806 Countercurrent exchange characteristics, 417 definition, 406 vasa recta, 417f Countercurrent multiplication system characteristics, 417-419 loop of Henle, 406, 418f, 419f COX, see Cyclooxygenase C peptide, see Connecting peptide Cranial nerve III, see Oculomotor nerve Cranial nerve IV, see Trochlear nerve Cranial nerve V, see Trigeminal nerve Cranial nerve VI, see Abducens nerve Cranial nerve VII, see Facial nerve Cranial nerve VIII, see Cochlear nerve Cranial nerve IX, see Glossopharyngeal nerve Cranial nerve X, see Vagus nerve Cranial nerve XII, see Hypoglossal nerve Cranial nerves eye movement, 826f, 827f eye muscle innervation, 826-827 CRE, see Cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element Creatinine balance

GFR determination, 367 overview, 369 CREB, see Cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein CRH, see Corticotropin-releasing hormone CRH-BP, see Corticotropin-releasing hormone binding protein Cribriform plate, 852 Critical micellar concentration, bile salts, 522-523

Critical opening pressure, 279-280 Crossbridge cycling events, 126f muscle cells, 135 striated muscle, 125 Crossed-extensor reflex characteristics, 872 circuitry, 871f Cryptorchidism, 732 Crypts in digestion, 530 Na+ and Cl- secretion, 553f schematic diagram, 530f CS, see Conditioned stimulus CSF, see Cerebral spinal fluid Cumulus oophorous, 741 Cuneate fasciculus, 801 Cuneate nucleus, 801 Curare end-plate potential, 101f neuromuscular junction studies, 100

Current of injury, myocardial ischemia, 196-197

Cushing reaction, blood pressure control, 231 Cushing's disease characteristics, 620 diabetes mellitus, 668 Cutaneous circulation, 254 Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Aplysia short-term sensitization, 912 cardiac muscle, 184 effects, 25f growth hormone regulation, 713 hormone synergy and attenuation, 571 insulin effects, 650-651 insulin regulation, 656 metabotropic receptors, 118, 121 production, 852 in PTH function, 687 renin-angiotensin system, 352 responding system modulation, 569 salivary gland regulation, 502 as second messenger, 24-25 structure, 24f in testicular function, 723 thyroid function regulation, 593-594 Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase, see Protein kinase A Cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element, 25 Cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein activation, 711-712 second messenger concept, 25 Cyclic guanosine monophosphate in photoreception, 28f in phototransduction cascade, 810-811 Cyclooxygenase and glucocorticoids, 624 in prostaglandin production, 622 Cysteinuria, 538 Cystic fibrosis characteristics, 275 pancreas conditions, 519 Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, 275, 553 Cytochrome P450, in testicular function,

723-724 Cytokines cellular activity coordination, 19 in fever, 931

and glucocorticoids, 623-625 in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis control, 631f in inflammation, 622 Cytosine in complementary base pairing, 14f DNA structure overview, 13 Cytosol, Ca2+ removal, 183 Cytotrophoblast, 760

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