Carbon Monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a deadly gas that also modulates the Hb-O2 dissociation curve by changing the shape and position of concentration or saturation curves. The affinity of Hb for CO is 240 times greater than it is for O2, so even very small amounts of CO greatly reduce the capacity for hemoglobin to bind O2. Therefore, CO decreases the O2cap, or maximum height of the concentration curve (Fig. 3). However, CO also decreases the P50 and makes the Hb-O2 curve less sigmoidal. Figure 3 illustrates these changes and compares the effects of CO poisoning with anemia, when O2cap is reduced the same amount in both cases. CO causes a left shift of the curve by altering the ability of the hemoglobin molecule to bind O2. This means blood O2 concentration remains high until PO2 decreases to very low levels, which impairs O2 unloading from blood to tissues. CO poisoning also has direct effects on cellular cytochromes, which contribute to its deadliness. CO is particularly dangerous because it is colorless, odorless, and the decrease it causes in arterial O2 concentration is not sensed by respiratory control systems (which respond only to O2 partial pressure as explained in Chapter 22). Hyperbaric O2 exposure is used to treat CO poisoning, because only very high PO2 levels are effective at competing with CO for Hb-binding sites and driving CO out of the blood.

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

One of the main home remedies that you need to follow to prevent gallstones is a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent gallstones. The following are the best home remedies that will help you to treat and prevent gallstones.

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