Cellular Circuits Of The Cerebellum

The cellular anatomy of the cerebellar cortex is a relatively simple, stereotyped arrangement with the same basic pattern repeating across all divisions (Fig. 4). One output neuron, the Purkinje cell, projects to cerebellar nuclei, and there are two inputs. Direct input is provided

A. General motor loop of the cerebral cortex - basal ganglia

B. General motor loop of the cerebral cortex - cerebellum to restricted area of cerebral cortex to restricted area of cerebral cortex from broad areas of cerebral cortex to restricted area of cerebral cortex

from broad areas of cerebral cortex to restricted area of cerebral cortex from broad areas of cerebral cortex

FIGURE 1 Comparison of connections of the basal ganglia (A) and cerebellum (B). The basal ganglia and the cerebellum have many commonalties and influence motor function in similar ways. Excitatory input from broad areas of the cerebral cortex drive spiney neurons in the neostriatal region of the basal ganglia (A) and also relay nuclei in the pons, which then excite Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex (B). Both spiney neurons and Purkinje cells release y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to inhibit relay neurons in the globus pallidus/substantia nigra (A) or in the deep cerebellar nuclei (B). In turn, these relay nuclei project to the thalamus, where they modulate thalamic inputs to specific motor areas of the cerebral cortex.

A. Medial view of cerebellum as it is attached to the brain stem

B. View of the cerebellar cortex flattened. to show the lobes & areas thalamus red nucleus reticular formation

A. Medial view of cerebellum as it is attached to the brain stem thalamus red nucleus

reticular formation anterior lobe flocculo-nodular lobe pons and pontine nuclei vestibular nuclei inferior olive four functional divisions: lateral cerebellum intermediate cerebellum vermis flocculus & nodulus pons and pontine nuclei vestibular nuclei inferior olive anterior lobe posterior lobe flocculo-nodular lobe posterior lobe

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