The regulation of calcium homeostasis provides good examples of some of the principles of hormonal integration discussed in Chapter 37. The principle of cooperativity is illustrated by the multiple actions of PTH on different tissues to produce a variety of effects that contribute to the central theme of increasing calcium in the extracellular compartment. Overlapping effects of PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3 illustrate redundancy. The opposing actions of PTH and calcitonin on osteoclasts are typical of a push-pull system. The thoughtful student will undoubtedly find other examples in this exquisitely coordinated system.
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