In summary, the vascular function curve is directly altered by changing one or more of the following: (1) TPR, (2) venous tone, and/or (3) blood volume. The cardiac function curve is directly altered by changing (1) heart rate, (2) cardiac contractility, (3) TPR, and/or (4) external cardiac pressure. The only parameter directly affecting both relationships is TPR. All changes in cardiac output must involve alteration of at least one of the two function curves. In the following chapters we learn how the body alters these parameters to cause meaningful and appropriate changes in cardiac output.
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Cardiovasc Physiol III 1979;8:33-65. Guyton AC, Jones CE, Coleman TG. Circulatory physiology: cardiac output and its regulation. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1973. Levy MN. The cardiac and vascular factors that determine systemic blood flow. Circ Res 1979;44:739-746.
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