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E, see Epinephrine EA, see Efferent arteriole Eardrum, see Tympanic membrane Eccentric hypertrophy definition, 945 heart structure, 945f E-C coupling, see Excitation-contraction coupling

ECF volume, see Extracellular fluid volume ECG, see Electrocardiogram ECL cells, see Enterochromaffin-like cells Ectopic focus, in premature heart contraction, 199 Edema characteristics, 235, 243, 260 definition, 243 in exercise, 937

extracellular fluid volume, 425, 426 in heart failure, 942-943 lung fluid balance, 273 overview, 242-244 during pregnancy, 960 Edinger-Westphal nucleus, 827 EDRF, see Endothelial-derived relaxing factor

EEG, see Electroencephalogram Effective renal plasma flow, during pregnancy, 960 Effector, 20

Efferent arteriolar resistance effect on RPF and GPR, 356-357 Starling forces, 434f Efferent arteriole characteristics, 345 glomerular capillary tuft, 345f kidney, 333, 335 relative resistance changes, 357f resistance changes, 348f Efferent fibers, sensory receptors, 790 Efferent output, ventilation control, 316 Efferent pathways, rhythmic breathing,

318-319 Efficiency, in breathing, 288 Eggs, see Ova

Eicosanoids, see Arachidonic acid, metabolites eIF-2, see Eukaryotic initiation factor-2 Ejection fraction contractility assessment, 211-212 definition, 202 Ejection loop actual ejection, 210f aortic pressure effect, 209f contractility effects, 208f decreased compliance effect, 210f oxygen consumption prediction, 213f plot on pressure-volume graph, 207 stroke volume calculation, 207 venous filling pressure effect, 209f Elastance, 279 Elastin, in breathing, 280 Electrical force, diffusion potential, 47 Electrical impulses, in fibrillations, 199-200 Electrical potential channel current relationship, 52f nephron epithelial cells, 375 Electrical rhythm, gastric motility, 487 Electrical synaptic transmission, mediation, 98

Electrocardiogram action potentials and extracellular voltages, 188

atrioventricular node in heart blocks, 197-198

augmented limb leads, 194-195 chest exploration with unipolar leads, 194 disease effect on mean electrical axis, 195-196

electrode attachment to patient, 191

fibrillation, 199f, 199-200

heart electrical event correspondence,

189-190 heart rhythm changes, 197 intervals as times, 190-191 12-lead placements, 192f left bundle branch block, 196f lower left quadrant normal axis, 194 major waves, 190f myocardial ischemia, 196-197 premature heart contractions, 199 PR interval shortening, 198-199 segments as voltages, 190-191 thorax as volume conductor, 188-189 various tracings, 198f vectors from limb leads, 191 ventricular hypertrophy, 195f Electrodes, attachment to patient, 191 Electroencephalogram, reticular-activating system, 902-903 Electrogenic ion pumps, 66 Electrolytes bile secretion, 525-526 diffusion overview, 44-45 diffusion potentials, 45-48 gastric juice, 505 ion active transport, 48-49 in saliva, 500 Electron micrograph glomerular filtration barrier, 351f pulmonary capillary, 303f scanning, see Scanning electron micrograph synaptic contact, 100f ventricular muscle, 177f Elephantiasis, 244

ELISA, see Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

Elongation factors, 15 Emmetropia, 828

Emotion reward pathway, 899, 901 Emotions autonomic nervous system, 898-899 neuronal circuits, 898f Papez circuit, 899 Emphysema, 283 Emulsifying agents, 538 Emulsion bile salts, 522 lipid digestion, 538 e-NANC, see Excitatory nonadrenergic noncholinergic system End-diastolic volume definition, 203 ejection loop, 207 Endochondral ossification, 705 Endocrine system, see also Hormones cellular activity coordination, 19

kidney functions, 337-338 overview, 560

physiology objectives, 560f Endocytosis, 34 Endolymph cochlea, 840 hair cells, 833 Endometrium, 742, 750f Endopeptidases, 535-536 Endorphin, 794 ^-Endorphin, 577 Endorphin receptors, 794 Endosomes, 35 Endothelial cells, 232 Endothelial-derived relaxing factor, 293 Endothelin, 358-359 Endothelin-1, 232 End-plate potentials acetylcholine hypothesis, 102 acetylcholine iontophoresis, 103-104 and ACh iontophoric application, comparison, 104f chemical synapses, 99-101 curare effects, 101f ionic mechanisms, 104-106 miniature, see Miniature end-plate potentials myasthenia gravis, 120 neostigmine effects, 103f propagation, 101, 102f End pressure, hemodynamic system, 161 End-stage renal disease characteristics, 350 overview, 334 End-systolic pressure-volume relationship contractility assessment, 212 definition, 202 End-systolic volume, 204 Energy balance hemodynamic system, 160 muscle cells, 135-136 smooth muscle, 143-144 Energy expenditure, body weight relationship, 674f Energy metabolism, see Fuel metabolism Enhancers, gene transcription overview, 14 Enkephalins, 476 ENS, see Enteric nervous system Enteric nervous system function, 465 overview, 152-153 Enterochromaffin-like cells gastric secretion, 506 paracrines, 475 Enterocytes in digestion, 530 lipid transport, 540-541 Enterogastrones characteristics, 475 gastric acid inhibition, 510 Enteroglucagon, 475 Enterohepatic circulation bile acids, 498, 524 thyroid hormones, 598

Enterokinase, 536

Enterooxyntin, gastric secretion, 506, 509 Environment body heat exchange, 923f, 923-925 cold, adaptation, 930-931 convection effect on heat loss, 925f hot, adaptation to, 928-930 total heat exchange, 925-926 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 563 Eosinophil chemical signals, 33 Epididymis, 722 Epiglottis, 273 Epilepsy characteristics, 786 seizures, 902 Epinephrine adrenal medulla, 631 biosynthetic sequence, 632f cardiac muscle, 184 effect on free fatty acids, 571f glucose effects, 665f glycogen phosphorylase activation, 570f hypoglycemic response, 634f push-pull mechanisms, 572f Epipharynx reflex, 324 Epiphyseal plates characteristics, 705 tibia, diagram, 705f Epiphyses, 705 Epithelial cells airways, 265 alveolar cells, 266 colonic, K+ secretion, 552f junctional complexes, 373f myoepithelial cells, 499f, 769 nephron collecting duct, 402f nephrons, 371, 373, 374f, 374-375 stomach, 503 Epithelium

GI tract, water absorption, 552f leaky, fluid absorption, 553f EPOC, see Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption EPP, see End-plate potentials EPSP, see Excitatory postsynaptic potential Equal pressure point, 286 Equilibrating carrier systems, 59 Equilibrium potential, Bernstein's hypothesis, 75

ERPF, see Effective renal plasma flow ERV, see Expiratory reserve volume Erythropoietic reserve, 307 Erythropoietin blood-oxygen equilibrium curves, 291 kidney, 333, 337-338 Esophageal motility, 485 Esophageal peristalsis, 483f Esophageal pressure measurement, 279 during swallow, 484f Esophagus and heartburn, 486

material movement overview, 482-485 stomach receptive relaxation, 485-486

ESRD, see End-stage renal disease Essential hypertension, 234 Esterification, 646 Estradiol function, 738

during menstruation, 752f production, 744-745 Estrogen biosynthesis during pregnancy, 766f biosynthetic pathway, 612f function, 742-743 in growth, 715

and placental steroid hormones, 767f in pregnancy, 765 in sperm transport, 759f synthesis, 747f ET-1, see Endothelin-1 Eukaryotic initiation factor-2, 649 Evaporation, in body temperature regulation,

923, 924-925 Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, 934

Exchange vessel, 237

Excitable membranes, extracellular recordings, 93-96 Excitation-contraction coupling calcium ions, 182-183 cardiac muscle, 127 in fatigue, 939 skeletal muscle, 127 Excitatory nonadrenergic noncholinergic system, 327 Excitatory postsynaptic potential definition, 113 ionic mechanisms, 114 ionotropic receptors, 119f and long-term potentiation, 913-915 metabotropic receptors, 118, 119f Excretion adrenal cortex, 615 ammonium in urine, 455f bicarbonate, 451f in hypervolemia, 435f inulin, 366f phosphate, parathyorid hormone, 689 rate, 361 sodium ion

GFR changes, 429-430 integrated control, 435-436 mechanism overview, 428 natriuretic hormones, 432-433 renin, angiotensin, aldosterone, 430-432 urate, 389-390 urea flow, 364 Exercise arterial pressure, 938

cardiac output, 937, 938f cardiac and vascular function curves, 222f cardiovascular system, 937

effect on cardiac and ventricular function curves, 223 fuels, 934-935 hand blood flow, 254f hormonal interactions, 671-673

limitations, 939

lungs pressure and volume, 936f metabolism overview, 934 overview, 934

prolonged moderate, insulin and hormones, 672f regional blood flow, 937-938 respiration, 936-937 respiratory effects, 935, 936f tissue gas exchange, 939 training, 939-940 ventilation, 935f ventilation and acid-base, 935-936 Exercise hyperpnea, 935 Exocytosis chemical signals, 34-35 schematic diagram, 35f transmitter vesicles, 110f Exogenous pyrogens, 931 Exon, RNA processing overview, 14 Exopeptidases, 536 Experience, in learning and memory, 906 Expiration definition, 277 schematic diagram, 278f Expiratory flow limitation airways, 285-287 in exercise, 936 Expiratory intercostal muscles, 318-319 Expiratory reflex, 324 Expiratory reserve volume, 266 Expired ventilation, 267 Extensor muscle motor neurons, 864 External environment, cellular activity coordination overview, 18

physiological signals, 19-20 receptor characteristics, 20-21 target cell responses, 20 External genitalia, male, 729-730 External intercostal muscles, 278 External urethral sphincter, 339 Extinction, in classical condition, 909 Extra-alveolar vessels, 270 Extracellular bone matrix, 682 Extracellular electrodes, 188 Extracellular fluid compartments division, 3

K+ distribution, 438f, 439 outside world contact, 4 potassium balance, 438-439 size, 8

volume measurement, 7f Extracellular fluid volume body Na+, 423

daily Na+ intake and output, 425 edema, 425, 426

effect on vasopressin secretion, 411-412

functional hypovolemia, 435f

Na+ reabsorption, 427-428

nephron ion transport, 399

overview, 424-425

plasma vasopressin response, 413f

Extracellular fluid volume (continued) renin secretion, 432f sensing, 428 Extracellular recordings nerve action potentials, 72 nerve bundle, 95-96 overview, 93 single axon, 94-95 Extracellular voltages, 188 Extraction reserve cardiovascular oxygen transport, 306 in exercise, 937 Extramural reflex, 508 Extraocular muscles innervation, 862 schematic diagram, 826f Extra-pyramidal system, 882 Extrasystole, 199 Eye, see also Visual system chromatic aberration, 824f horizontal section, 809f movement, cranial nerves and brain stem, 827f muscles, cranial nerve innervation, 826-827 nerves and muscles, 826f structure, 808-809

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