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G, see Guanine

GABA, see Gamma aminobutyric acid Gag reflex, 806 Galactose, 534, 534f Gall bladder bile concentration, 526-527 bile expulsion, 527-528 bile secretion, overview, 520-521 filling, 526 Gall stones characteristics, 527 during pregnancy, 966

Gametes, 758-759 Gamma aminobutyric acid inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, 116 olfactory bulb, 852 rhythmic breathing, 318 Gamma loop system, 867, 869-870 Gamma motor neurons, 869f, 870 Ganglion cells cortex blob region, 825f function, 807

receptive field properties, 816f retinal processing, 812 Gap junctions heart muscle cells, 177-179 smooth muscle cells, 480 Gas exchange definition, 259 in exercise, 936-937 general principles, 300-301 limitations, 301

pulmonary, see Pulmonary gas exchange tissue gas exchange, 300, 307, 939 Gastric acid pH relationship, 510f secretory process, 505-506 stimulation mechanisms, 509f Gastric inhibitory peptide characteristics, 474 function, 470 stomach caudad area, 488 Gastric juice, 505 Gastric motility caudad area, 487-488 emptying, 488-489 orad area, 487

structure and innervation, 486-487 Gastric mucosa, 503-504 Gastric pacemaker, 487 Gastric reflux, 966 Gastric secretion cephalic phase, 497-498, 508f electrolytes, 505 gastric phase, 509f gastrin release, 509 inhibition, 509-510 intestinal phase, 509 intrinsic factor, 511-512 mechanisms, 511f mucus, 511

overview, 497, 502-503, 507-508 pepsin, 510-511 and serum gastrin, 512 stimulants, 506-507 stomach anatomy, 503 Gastric ulcer, 512 Gastrin in acid secretion, 497 function, 470-472 gastric secretion, 507f release mechanism, 510f release regulation, 509 serum, and gastric acid secretion, 512 Gastrin cells, 503 Gastrin I, 471

Gastrin II, 471

Gastrinoma, see Zollinger-Ellison syndrome Gastrin-releasing peptide characteristics, 476 gastric secretion cephalic phase, 508 Gastroileal reflex definition, 494 function, 491 Gastrointestinal fluid, 412-413 Gastrointestinal hormones, 465 Gastrointestinal peptides, 468-469 Gastrointestinal smooth muscle cell structure, 480 contraction, 480 Gastrointestinal tract active hyperemia, 254f bombesin, 476

candidate hormones, 474-475 cholecystokinin, 472 enkephalins, 476 gastric inhibitory peptide, 474 gastrin, 470-472 general structure, 466-467 histology of wall, 466f hormones, 470

input vs. output overview, 548-549 intrinsic innervation, 467-468 motilin, 474

movement of material, 484 paracrines, 475

parasympathetic innervation, 467 peptides, 470f regulatory mechanism integration, 476-477 secretin, 473-474 sympathetic innervation, 467 vasoactive intestinal peptide, 475-476 water absorption, 552f Gaze centers, 829 G cells, see Gastrin cells GDP, see Guanosine diphosphate Gene expression DNA structure, 13

posttranslation processing overview, 16-17 regulation overview, 12 RNA processing, 14 transcription overview, 13-14 translation overview, 14-16 Generator potentials definition, 791 function, 831 Genetic potential, 703 Gene transcription, 13-14 Geniculate ganglia, 858 Genitalia, male, 729-730 Genital tract, male, testosterone effects, 727 Germ cells, 722f

Germinal epithelium, in testicular function,

724-726 Gestation fetal growth, 955f and progesterone, 743 prolactin, 774f GFR, see Glomerular filtration rate GH, see Growth hormone

GHK equation, see Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation Ghrelin, GH effects, 710 GHRH, see Growth hormone-releasing hormone Giant squid axon, 77f Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium condition development, 68f membrane transport, 67-70 plasma proteins, 349-350 GIF, see Gastric inhibitory peptide Gigantism, 703

GI tract, see Gastrointestinal tract Globus pallidus, 881 Glomerotubular balance changes, 433

peritubular factors, 433-434 renal nerves, 433 Glomerular capillary in blood flow, 345-346 colloid osmotic pressure, 348, 349f kidney, 333

plasma flow, filtration pressure, 349f pressure, 347 Glomerular capillary tuft, 345f Glomerular diseases, 350 Glomerular filtration barrier, 349-352 capillary pressure, 347 characteristics, 344 colloid osmotic pressure, 348 fluid absorption in peritubular capillaries, 348-349

forces driving and opposing, 346-347 hydrostatic pressure in Bowman's space, 348

overview, 346 Glomerular filtration rate afferent arteriole resistance, 357f afferent and efferent arteriolar resistance changes, 356-357 autocrine and paracrine regulation,

358-359 autoregulation, 353-355 changes, 429-430 characteristics, 346

creatinine concentration as indicator, 368 creatinine as indicator, 367-368 definition, 343, 361 determination, 365-366 efferent arteriole resistance, 357f inulin as indicator, 366f, 367 osmotic diuresis by mannitol, 383-384 overview of changes, 356 Pcr change, 368f peritubular factors, 434 porostaglandins, bradykinin, dopamine, 434

during pregnancy, 960 proximal tubule, 375-376 regulation by RAS, 352-353 renal nerves, 357, 433 vasoactive hormones, 357 Glomerular ultrafiltration, 346-347

Glomerulonephritis, 350 Glomerulosclerosis, 350 Glomerulotubular balance, 423, 429 Glomerulus characteristics, 336-337 kidney, 335

macromolecule filtration, 352f olfactory bulb structure, 852 scanning electron micrograph, 346f schematic illustration, 335f Glomus cells arterial chemoreceptors, 320 parathyroid gland, 686, 686f stomach, 503 Glossopharyngeal nerve arterial chemoreceptors, 320 in taste, 858 GLP-1, see Glucagon-like peptide 1 GLP-2, see Glucagon-like peptide 2 Glucagon biosynthesis, secretion, metabolism, 639 characteristics, 637 gluconeogenesis, 641-642 glucose effects, 665f glucose production, 565f, 640 glycogenolysis, 640-641 insulin comparison, 638 ketogenesis, 642-643 lipogenesis, 642-643 physiologic action overview, 639-640 secretion, 637, 639, 643f, 643-644 ureogenesis, 643 Glucagon-like peptide 1, 639 Glucagon-like peptide 2, 639 Gluco-amylase, 534 Glucocorticoids anti-inflammatory effects, 621-622 arachidonic acid metabolites, 622 and cortisoid, 667 and cytokines, 623-625 energy metabolism effects, 619-621 function, 608, 609 glucose effects, 620f in growth, 717-718 and immune response, 625-626 immunosuppressive properties, 626 inflammatory mediator release, 625 in injury response, 621 lung development, 621 lymphoid tissue effects, 626 mechanism of action, 627 prolonged exposure, 668 secretion, 627-630 secretion regulation, 627-630 in vascular responsiveness, 626 water balance, 621 Gluconeogenesis characteristics, 619 definition, 640 Glucose absorption, 534, 534f in blood, see Blood glucose as body fuel, 660 diabetic ketoacidosis, 950-951

glucagon secretion, 643-644 glucocorticoid effects, 620f hormone effects, 665f insulin effects, 650f insulin regulation, 655f kidney handling, 385f liver, 650-651 malic enzyme effects, 601f metabolism pathways, 640f negative feedback, 565f plasma concentrations, 653f problems as fuel, 661 production redundancy, 570f reabsorption in proximal tubule, 384-385 sustained aerobic exercise, 672 tolerance, 668f tolerance tests, 646f transport effect of insulin, 647f uptake in exercise, 935 Glucose-6-P, 648-649 Glucose-fatty acid cycle function, 660 overview, 662-663 schematic diagram, 662f Glucose-6-phosphate, 650 Glucose transporters and function, 647 Glucosuria, 386

GLUT, see Glucose transporters

GLUT-5, 534

Glutamate excitatory postsynaptic potentials, 114 hair cells, 833 rhythmic breathing, 318 Glutamate receptors, 117f Glycine, 318 Glycogen as body fuel, 660-661 metabolism, PKA role, 641f storage, 659

sustained aerobic exercise, 673 Glycogenolysis basic process, 640-641 definition, 640 Glycogen phosphorylase activation, 570f glycogenolysis, 640 push-pull mechanisms, 572f Glycogen synthase, 640 Glycolysis, 135-136 Glycoprotein hormoness, 575-577 Glycosides, cardiac, sodium pump inhibition, 184-185

Glycostatic effect, growth hormone, 667 Glycosuria characteristics, 386 insulin role, 645 GnRH, see Gonadotropin-releasing hormone Goblet cells airways, 265 in digestion, 530 Goiter, 588

Goldman equation, see Goldman-Hodgkin-

Katz equation Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation action potential, 78

end-plate potential mechanisms, overview, 104

membrane potential, 76 membrane potential graph, 76f Golf, see G-protein in olfactory receptors Golgi complex, 516 Golgi tendon organs characteristics, 870 function, 867 organization, 868f organization and innervation, 870f in proprioception, 795 Gonadal hormones, 715-717 Gonadotropin and antifertility drugs, 755 secretion control, 754 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone anterior pituitary control, 581-582 deficiency, 732 function, 579-580 in lactation, 774 release, 720

in reproductive cycle timing, 755-756 secretion in pubertal boy, 734f in testicular function, 731-732 Gonads, leptin effects, 678 Gorter-Grendel model, 39 G-protein-coupled receptors activation, 23f schematic diagram, 22f signal transduction complexities, 27

desensitization and downregulation,

22-23 ion channels, 26-27 isoforms, 23-24 overview, 21-22

second messenger concept, 24-26 G-protein in olfactory receptors, 852 G-proteins gp130, 29

signal transduction, 23-24 Gracile fasciculus, 801 Granule cells olfactory bulb structure, 852 renin-angiotensin system, 352 Granulocyte, chemical signals, 34 Granulosa cells characteristics, 739 in estrogen synthesis, 747f proliferation and differentiation, 749f Graves' disease, see Hyperthyroidism Gravity blood pressure effects, 173f cardiovascular system effects, 172-174 ventilation and blood flow, 310f Grb2, see Growth factor binding protein 2 Group Ia afferents, 868 Group II afferents, 868 Growth fetal, during gestation, 955f glucocorticoids, 717-718 gonadal hormones, 715-717

growth hormone and IGF-I roles, 707f hormonal regulation, 702f insulin role, 714-715 intrauterine retardation, 955 mammary glands, 770 neural tube, 782f overview, 702 rat, cortisone effect, 718f skeleton, growth hormone effects, 704-705 thyroid hormones, 713-714 Growth factor binding protein 2, 30 Growth factors, cellular activity coordination, 20

Growth hormone age effects, 709, 710f anterior pituitary control, 582 blood concentration, 709f body composition effects, 708-709 cAMP in regulation, 713 deficiency causes, 711 effect on free fatty acids, 571f fasted men, 712f fasting, 669-671 function, 577 glucocorticoids, 717 gonadal hormones, 717 human, see Human growth hormone and human chorionic somatomammotropin, 764 hyperthyroidism, 714f hypoglycemia, 711f hypothyroidism, 713f, 714f IGF properties, 707-708 leptin in fuel storage, 675-676 mode of action, 704 muscle, 666-667 overview, 701-703 pancreatic islets, 667-668 plasma concentration in normal boys, 716f prolonged exposure, 668 role in growth, 707f secretion regulation, 709-711f in skeletal growth, 704-705 somatomedin hypothesis, 705-707 somatotrope actions, 711-713 synthesis, secretion, metabolism, 703-704 thyroid hormones, 713-714 triiodothyronine role, 714 in triiodothyronine secretion, 714 Growth hormone receptor, 770 Growth hormone-releasing hormone anterior pituitary control, 582 function, 580 GH effects, 710

hypo- and hyperthyroidism, 714f somatotrope actions, 711-713 GRP, see Gastrin-releasing peptide GT balance, see Glomerulotubular balance GTP, see Guanosine triphosphate Guanine in complementary base pairing, 14f DNA structure overview, 13 Guanosine diphosphate, 22 Guanosine triphosphate, 22

Gustatory system basic taste overview, 855 bitter taste, 857 central pathways, 858-859 function, 849 overview, 854-855 salt taste, 857 sour taste, 857 sweet taste, 857 umami taste, 857

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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