I bands, 179

IC, see Inspiratory capacity ICCs, see Interstitial cells of Cajal ICF, see Intracellular fluid compartment Ideal alveolar-arterial pulmonary oxygen difference, 301 Ideal gas law, respiratory system, 263-264 IgA, see Immunoglobulin A IGFBPs, see Insulin-like growth factor-

binding proteins IGF-I, see Insulin-like growth factor I IGF receptors, see Insulin-like growth factor receptors IL, see Interleukins Ileocecal sphincter relaxation, 480 Immune system defense mechanisms, 275 response and glucocorticoids, 625-626 Immunoassays function, 559

hormones in blood, 563-564 Immunoglobulin A, 499 Immunoreactive glucagon, 653f Immunoreactive insulin, 653f Impaction, airway defense mechanisms, 273 Implantation, and placenta formation,

760-761 Inactivation gate channel blocking, 180 sodium channel, 82-83 i-NANC, see Inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic system Incretins, 654 Incus, 840

I neurons, see Inspiratory neurons

Infant Hercules, 631

Infarction, 944

Inferior colliculus, 844

Inferior glossopharyngeal ganglia, 858

Inferior oblique muscle, 827

Inferior olivary complex, 895

Inferior penducle, 889

Inferior rectus muscle, 826-827

Inferior vagal ganglia, 858

Inferior vestibular nucleus, 837

Inferotemporal cortex, 821

Inflammation, 621

Inflammatory reactions, edema, 243

Inflation inhibitory reflex, 325

Infrasound, 840

Infundibulum, 574, 742

Inhibin function, 738, 743 during menstruation, 752f Inhibin B, 733

Inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic system, 327 Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, 115-116 Initial collecting tubule, 337 Initiation factors, 15 Injury responses, glucocorticoids anti-inflammatory effects, 621-622 overview, 621

Inner ear sound transmission, 840 vestibular organ, 832f Inner hair cells function, 839 Organ of Corti, 842 Inner plexiform layer, 812 Inositol triphosphate system in bitter taste, 857

role in actin-myosin interactions, 139 second messenger concepts, 26 signal transduction, 26f Inotropic effect, in exercise, 937 INs, see Interneurons Insensible water loss, 5 Inspiration definition, 277 schematic diagram, 278f Inspiratory capacity, 266 Inspiratory neurons, 318 Inspiratory reserve volume, 266 Insulin abnormalities, 645-646 action overview, 644, 646 adipose tissue effects, 646-648 biosynthesis, secretion, metabolism, 644 blood glucose, 565f characteristics, 637 diabetic ketoacidosis, 950 glucagon comparison, 638 glucose effects, 650f glucose transport effect, 647f in growth, 714-715 lipogenesis effects, 651f liver effects, 649-651 mechanism of action, 651-653 muscle effects, 648-649 prolonged moderate exercise, 672f protein turnover effect, 649f secretion, 638, 644, 653-654f, 654-656 Insulin growth factor receptors, 29 Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins,

707-708 Insulin-like growth factor I

body composition effects, 708-709 fasted men, 712f plasma concentration in normal boys, 716f somatotrope actions, 711-713 Insulin-like growth factor receptors, 29 Insulin-like growth factors child treatment, 706f properties, 707-708 Insulin receptor model, 652f signaling model, 652f Insulin receptor substrates and function, 652 Intensity central sensory pathways, 798 definition, 839 as sound attribute, 844 Interaural intensity differences, 847 Interaural onset delay, 847 Interaural phase delay, 847

Intercalated cells kidney, 337

plasma bicarbonate concentration, 450 proton secretion, 400-403 Intercalated disc, 177 Intercalated duct, 499 Interdigestive secretion, 507 Interdigestive state, gastrin, 471 Interleukins in circulatory shock, 946 effects, 624f in fever, 931

and glucocorticoids, 623-625 Intermediate lobe, 574

Intermediate zone, lateral vestibular tract, 872 Intermediolateral column, blood pressure control, 226 Internal capsule, pyramidal tract, 876 Internal environment cellular activity coordination, 18-21 respiratory system interface, 261 Internal genitalia, 729f Internal intercostal muscles, 278 Internal urethral sphincter, 339 Interneurons

Aplysia short-term sensitization, 911 synaptic transmission, 112 Interplexiform cells, 812-813 Interposed nucleus, spinocerebellum, 890 Interstimulus interval, 910 Interstitial cells of Cajal definition, 481

in gastrointestinal motility, 495 small intestine motility, 490 Interstitial cells of Leydig, 720 Interstitial edema in exercise, 937 lung fluid balance, 273 overview, 242-244 Interstitial fluid major components, 6f total body water, 3 Interstitial fluid compartment ionic composition, 5 outside world contact, 4 size, 8

Interstitial fluid pressure capillary wall, 240 definition, 235

junctional complex effects, 379f lymph flow comparison, 242f volume comparison, 240f Interstitial forces, capillary filtration, 242 Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, 283 Interstitial space, lung fluid balance, 273 Intervillous space, placenta during pregnancy, 955

Intestinal absorption calcium, 681, 689

1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol action, 695-696

Intestinal secretory cells, apical membrane, 548

Intestinal transferrin, iron absorption, 545

Intestinal villi, 530f Intestinointestinal reflex, 491 Intracellular canaliculus, 504 Intracellular compartment, 3 Intracellular fluid compartment ionic composition, 5-6 K+ distribution, 438f, 439 major components, 6f outside world contact, 4 size, 8

Intracellular receptors, 31-32 Intracellular recording techniques nerve action potential, 73-74 resting potential, 72-73 Intrafusal muscle fibers, 868 Intraluminal pressure duodenum, 490f stomach, 487f Intramural reflex, 508 Intrathoracic pressure, 221 Intrauterine growth retardation, 955 Intrinsic eye muscles, 827-828 Intrinsic factor gastric function, 502 gastric secretion, 511-512 vitamin B12, 544 Intron, RNA processing overview, 14 Inulin characteristics, 361 clearance, 366f definition, 365 excretion rate, 366f GFR determination, 367 isosmotic volume reabsorption, 376 proximal tubule, 376f Iodine incorporation by thyroid, 591 thyroid trapping, 590 Ion channels action potential plateau phase, 180 aldosterone-responsive distal nephron, 398 blocking by tetrodotoxin, 180 bursts, 50f characteristics, 821 electrical potential relationship, 52f event histogram, 51f G-protein-coupled receptors, 26-27 inactivation, 82-83 inactivation recovery, 87f intracellular messengers, 184f ionotropic receptor-channel complexes,

116-117 measurement, 50f overview, 49-52 plateau phase, 180 regulation, 53

second messenger concept, 25

selectivity determinants, 52-53

signal transduction, 28

structural and functional unit, 81f structure, 80-82

three states, 82f transepithelial voltages, 375

underlying action potential, specificity, 85

voltage-gated, structure, 80-82 Ion diffusion, biological channels, 49-52 Ion flux, across salivon, 501f Ionic composition, major fluid compartments, 5-6 Ionic flux, cardiac muscle cells, 181-182 Ionotropic receptor-channel complexes,

116-117 Ionotropic receptors excitatory postsynaptic potentials, 119f postsynaptic mechanisms, 114-117 Ion pumps, membrane transport, 67-70 Iontophoresis, acetylcholinesterase, 103-104 Ion transport active, criteria, 48-49

aldosterone-responsive distal nephron, 398 nephron, aldosterone role, 398-400 Ipsilateral ophthalmoplegia, 830 IPSPs, see Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials IP3 system, see Inositol triphosphate system IRG, see Immunoreactive glucagon IRI, see Immunoreactive insulin Iron, absorption, 545-546 IRS, see Insulin receptor substrates IRV, see Inspiratory reserve volume ISF, see Interstitial fluid compartment ISI, see Interstimulus interval Isoelectric plane, 189

Isofrequency bands, in pitch perception, 845 Isomaltase carbohydrate assimilation, 535 in digestion, 534 Isometric contraction recording in vitro, 129f skeletal muscle, 129-131 Isosmotic capillary plasma, hypothetical equilibration, 417f Isosmotic glucose solution, 9 Isosmotic saline solution, 9 Isosmotic volume absorption, 378 Isosmotic volume reabsorption, 375-377 Isotonic contraction, skeletal muscle, 131-132 Isotonic saline, infusion in body fluid compartment, 9 Isotonic urea, infusion in body fluid compartment, 9 Isovolumetric period of contraction, 203 IUGR, see Intrauterine growth retardation

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