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Primary Protein Translation Products

FIGURE 4 Alternative splicing of mRNA can give rise to different proteins. Numbers indicate exons. Exon 1 is untranslated. N, amino terminus; C, carboxyl terminus.

Primary Protein Translation Products

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FIGURE 4 Alternative splicing of mRNA can give rise to different proteins. Numbers indicate exons. Exon 1 is untranslated. N, amino terminus; C, carboxyl terminus.

proteins called initiation factors, and its continuation requires elongation factors. For translation to begin, the two subunits of the ribosome must be assembled at a precise position on the mRNA because deviation by even a single nucleotide in either direction would specify a totally different protein. Protein synthesis begins when a special initiator tRNA carrying methionine binds to the AUG start codon in the mRNA and proceeds to elongate the peptide chain by adding one amino acid at a time from the amino terminus toward the carboxyl terminus. The ribosome moves stepwise along the mRNA, catalyzing peptide bond formation and displacing the newly unloaded tRNA as the next amino acid is positioned by its tRNA (Fig. 5). When the ribosome reaches any one of three ''stop'' codons it releases the completed protein and dissociates from the mRNA.

growing peptide chain departing | ^

empty tRNA

arriving charged tRNA

AAGACC ^

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Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

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