Equation [1] is a surprisingly accurate approximation of the plasma osmolality. The first term gives the contribution to the osmolality from Na+ and accompanying anions such as Cl" and HCO". Because most Na+ salts in the plasma are monovalent, their contribution to the total osmolality is approximately equal to two times the plasma Na+ concentration. The osmolality in mOsm/kg H2O produced by the urea and glucose is approximately equal to their mmol/L concentrations because they are small nonelectrolytes; however, in contrast to Na+, the plasma glucose concentration and the BUN are traditionally given in clinical units of mg/dL. In the case of glucose, Pglu in

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