Ventricular volume (mL)
FIGURE 12 Determination of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship using a conductance catheter. Ventricular volume from the conductance catheter is displayed on the horizontal axis and ventricular pressure on the vertical axis. Each loop depicts data from a single beat. Filling pressure is elevated for several beats by injecting saline into the left atrium so that several different ejection loops are traced. A line is then fitted to the end-systolic points indicated by the solid dots. The steeper the slope, the greater the contractility of the ventricle.
to thin-walled structures like soap bubbles, the tension is given by:
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