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Action potentials (continued) Na+, 78f

Na+ and K+ concentrations, 85-86 Na+ and K+ conductance, 83f nerve, 72, 73-74, 76-78 nerve, sketch, 78f optic nerve, 72f plateau phase, calcium channel role, 180 propagation, basic principles, 89-90 repolarization, voltage-dependent potassium conductance role, 83-85 sciatic nerve, 792f sequence of steps, 90f skeletal muscle, shock response, 130f sodium hypothesis, 76-78 sound intensity, 845 tetraethylammonium, 85f threshold, 86 Activation gate, 180 Active hyperemia blood flow, 247 definition, 223 in exercise, 937 Active reabsorption, Na+ cotransport, 385f Active sleep, see Rapid eye movement sleep Active solute transport, proximal tubule,

379-380 Active transport absorption, 533 ions, criteria, 48-49 overview, 59-60 primary type, 38, 60 secondary type, 60-62 Active zone, neuromuscular junction, 99 Activins, in testicular function, 733 Adaptation to cold environment, 930-931 dietary regulation, 532 to hot environment, 928-930 light, 811

maternal, see Maternal adaptation during pregnancy, 965-966 receptors, 21 Addison's disease characteristics, 609 nephron ion transport, 399 Adenine in complementary base pairing, 14f DNA structure overview, 13 Adenohypophysis, 574 Adenosine, blood flow regulation, 248 Adenosine diphosphate in exercise, 934 thyroid hormones, 599 Adenosine triphosphate crossbridge cycling, 135 cytoplasmic calcium cycling, 135 in exercise, 933, 934

glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, 135-136

muscle resting and action potentials, 135 short-term maximal exercise effort, 671 smooth muscle, 143-144 in smooth muscle contraction, 481

thyroid hormones, 599 Adenylyl cyclase, cardiac muscle, 184 ADH, see Antidiuretic hormone Adipose tissue carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, 647f fuel storage issues, 673 insulin effects, 646-648 metabolic hormones, 665-666 ADP, see Adenosine diphosphate Adrenal cortex adrenal steroid hormones in blood, 615 adrenocortical hormones, 609-612 fetal, in pregnancy, 765-766 hormone metabolism and excretion, 615 hormone synthesis, 612-615 hyperfunction, 620 overview, 609 steroidogenesis, 613f stress effects, 626-627 Adrenal gland adrenal cortex, 609-615 adrenal medulla, 630-635 glucocorticoids, 619-630 histology, 609f mineralocorticoids, 615-619 morphology, 608-609 negative feedback with pituitary gland, 630 overview, 608 Adrenal medulla blood pressure control, 231 epinephrine and norepinephrine biosynthesis, 632f medullary hormones, 632, 633-635 overview, 630-631 regulation, 635

storage, release, metabolism, 632-633 Adrenal steroid hormones blood, 615 structures, 609f Adrenergic receptor, 148 a-Adrenergic receptor autonomic nervous system, 149 lungs, 327 ^-Adrenergic receptor autonomic nervous system, 149 lungs, 327

salivary gland regulation, 502 ^-Adrenergic receptors cardiac muscle, 184 in exercise, 937 Adrenocortical hormones aldosterone synthesis, 614-615 biosynthesis, 610 biosynthetic pathway, 611f

18-carbon series, 612

19-carbon series, 612 21-carbon series, 611-612 derivation, 609-610 pregnenolone as precursor, 610-611 synthesis regulation, 612-615

Adrenocorticotropic hormone in aldosterone secretion, 400 in aldosterone synthesis, 614 effects, 612-614

function, 577, 608 glucocorticoid secretion regulation,

627-630 plasma concentrations, 629f responding system modulation, 569 secretion, 631 secretion regulation, 628f in steroidogenesis, 613f stress effects, 626-627 Adrenocorticotropinss, 577-578 Adrenogenital syndrome, 630 Adsorption, 281

Adult respiratory distress syndrome characteristics, 313, 947 overview, 230 Aerosols, 273 Affective aggression neuronal pathways, 901f Papez circuit, 899 Afferent arterioles characteristics, 345 glomerular capillary tuft, 345f kidney, 333, 335 NaCl effect, 355f pressure increase, 354 relative resistance changes, 357f resistance, 348f, 356-357, 434f Afferent fibers, 790 Afferent input, 316 Afferent taste fibers, 849 Affinity receptors, 21 Afterload definition, 207 isotonic contraction, 132 Age body weight and fat changes, 674f growth hormone effects, 709, 710f Aggression neuronal pathways, 901f Papez circuit, 899 Agonists, 19

Agouti-related peptide, 677f Agouti-related protein, 677 AGRP, see Agouti-related protein Airway resistance definition, 277

dynamic compression, 285-287 measures, 284-285 physical determinants, 283-284 physiologic determinants, 285 reflexes, 324

ventilation distribution, 287-288 Airways air flow resistance, 284f cellular structure, 265f closure in breathing, 280 conductance, 285 conducting, cross-section, 274f defense mechanisms, 273-274 dynamic compression, 286f functional zones, 264f lung branching, 262f reflexes, 323-327 respiratory system, 264-266

AKAPs, see A kinase anchoring proteins A kinase anchoring proteins, 32-33 Akinesia, 885 Albumin, 595

Alcohol, gastric secretion effects, 509 Aldosterone

ARDN effects, 442f arterial pressure regulation, 233 continuous administration, 616f corticosterone precursor, 611-612 function, 607, 608 kidney effects, overview, 616-618 in Na+ excretion, 430-432 in nephron ion transport, 398-400 nonpregnant women, 961f during pregnancy, 960, 960f in reabsorption, 392 renal action mechanisms, 617f salivary gland regulation, 502 secretion, 619, 619f synthesis, 614f, 614-615 Aldosterone receptors, 400 Aldosterone-responsive distal nephron aldosterone effects, 400f characteristics, 397 ion transport, 398 K+, aldosterone, pH, 442f K+ secretion, 442-443f K+ transport, 441-442 Na+ excretion, 435 various cells, 392 Aldosteronism, 401 Alkalemia, 454 Alkaline tide, 505 Alkalosis acid-base disturbances, 460 characteristics, 456 plasma bicarbonate threshold, 452f proton transport, 403f Allergic reactions, 243 Aloe nasi, 278 Alpha cells, 638 a-conditioning, 910 Alpha motor neurons characteristics, 863-864 skeletal muscle, 133 Alpha rhythms, 903 ALSO, see Acid-labile subunit Alveolar gas equation, 302 Alveolar pressure, 270 Alveolar ventilation, 301-302 Alveoli characteristics, 264 definition, 259

mammary, components, 769f respiratory system-environment interface, 261

ventilation-perfusion mismatching, 310-312 Alzheimer's disease, 917 Amacrine cells characteristics, 815 retinal processing, 812

Ambient temperature and pressure saturated, 264

AMH, see Anti-mullerian hormone Amino acids insulin regulation, 654 reabsorption in proximal tubule, 386-387 Ammonia, peptic ulcer, 513 Ammonium, excretion in urine, 455f Ampulla, fertilization, 758 Ampullary crest, 833 Amygdala in emotion, 899 and hypothalamus, 897 olfactory cortex, 852 ^-Amylase, 533f Amylin, 644

Anaerobic threshold, 934 Anal canal, 493-494 Anal sphincters, 494f Anaphylactic shock, 948 Anaphylaxis, 244 Anatomic dead space, 301 Anatomic shunt, 269 Androgens biosynthetic pathway, 612f function, 608, 609 in growth, 715 Androstenedione, 612 Anemia blood-oxygen equilibrium curves, 291 pernicious anemia, 543 Anemia of pregnancy, 958 Anencephaly, 786 ANF, see Atrial natriuretic factor Angina, 249 Angina pectoris in exercise, 937 overview, 213 Angiogenic factors, 251 Angiotensin function, 608

in Na+ excretion, 430-432 Angiotensin-converting enzyme lung, 276

renin-angiotensin system, 352 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors failing heart treatment, 945 hypertension, 234 renin-angiotensin system, 353 Angiotensin I, 232 Angiotensin II

aldosterone synthesis stimulation, 614f blood pressure control, 232 effects, 344 kidney, 333 lung, 276

during pregnancy, 960-961 production, 353f uterine blood flow, 956-957 Angiotensinogen blood pressure control, 232 during pregnancy, 960f Angular acceleration, 833

Animal studies, learning and memory behaviors and neural circuits, 910-911 classical conditioning mechanisms, 913 operant conditioning, 913 sensitization in Aplysia, 911-913 Anion gap, acid-base balance, 457 Annulospiral ring, 868 ANP, see Atrial natriuretic peptide ANS, see Autonomic nervous system Anterior pituitary gland feedback control, 581-582 glycoprotein hormones, 575-577 hormone secretion, 581f hypophysiotropic hormones, 579-581 physiological overview, 575 regulation overview, 578-579 Anterior pituitary hormone, 581f Anterior semicircular canals, 833 Anterograde amnesia, 906 Anterolateral funiculi, 872 Anterolateral pathway function, 802 overview, 802 Antidiuresis, 410 Antidiuretic hormone cellular action, 409-410 in diabetes insipidus, 949 distal convoluted tubule, 392 effect on aquaporin-2, 410f function, 405 increase in plasma, 413f loop of Henle, 395-396 overview, 409

plasma osmolality effect, 411f posterior pituitary, 582, 583 release, 230, 409f salivary gland regulation, 502 secretion, 408-412, 584f secretion regulation, 584f urine effects, 410f Antifertility drugs, 755 Anti-mullerian hormone function, 720

reproductive duct development, 729 signaling pathway, 730f Antiport, 62 Antipyrine, 8 arAntitrypsin, 283 Antrum formation, 740 as stomach part, 503 Anvil, see Incus Aorta capacitance changes, 171f pressure at three sites, 169f stroke volume and pressure, 170f various ages, 170f Aortic baroreceptors, 228 Aortic bodies, 231

Aortic body chemoreceptors, see Arterial chemoreceptors Aortic pressure, 208 Apical membrane, 548

Aplysia behaviors and neural circuits, 910-911 long-term sensitization, 912-913 short-term sensitization, 911-912 tail-siphon withdrawal reflex, 911f Apnea cause, 324 treatment, 328 Apneic carbon dioxide threshold, 322 Apneusis, 318 Apolipoprotein, 281 Apoproteins, 542 Apoptosis, 20 Appetite fuel for exercise, 935 hypothalamic control, 674-675 Apraxia, 879 Aquaporin-1, 378 Aquaporin-2, 410f Aqueous humor, 828 Arachidonic acid function, 622 lung, 276

metabolites, 26, 622, 623f ARDN, see Aldosterone-responsive distal nephron

ARDS, see Adult respiratory distress syndrome Arginine vasopressin glucocorticoid secretion regulation, 627-630

posterior pituitary, 582, 583-584 during pregnancy, 961-963 Aromatization, 612 Arrestin, 811 J-Arrestin, 22-23 Arterial baroreceptors, 423 Arterial capacitance, 217 Arterial chemoreceptors function, 315

ventilatory responses, 320-321 Arterial pH

Henderson-Hasselbach equation, 295 ventilatory response, 322 Arterial pressure blood flow relation, 247f definition, 158 in exercise, 938 long-term regulation, 232-233 during pregnancy, 957f pulsatility, 169-171 regulation overview, 226 sympathetic maintenance, 227f and urine output, 233f venous comparison, 217f venous pressure relationship, 216-218 Arterial pressure sensors, 227 Arterial vasodilation, 937 Arterial-venous oxygen, 306 Arteries kidney, 333

pulmonary, circulation, 268 Arteriolar tone, 220 Arterioles afferent, see Afferent arterioles efferent, see Efferent arteriole metarterioles, 236 in microcirculation, 236 Arteriovenous anastomoses, 254 Arteriovenous shunt, 956 Ascending vasa recta, 336 Ascorbic acid, see Vitamin C Aspiration, 324 Asthma, 313 Astigmatism, 828 ATP, see Adenosine triphosphate ATPase, 62 H+/K+-ATPase intercalated cells, 403 K+ transport, 441 peptic ulcer, 513 Na+/K+-ATPase in absorption, 533, 534-535 ascending limb of loop of Henle, 395 bile acids, 525 characteristics, 374 distal convoluted tubule, 397 gastric secretion, 505 K+ distribution, 439 nephron ion transport, 399 pancreatic secretion, 515 in protein digestion, 537 salivary secretion, 501 stomach, 504 ATPS, see Ambient temperature and pressure saturated Atrial natriuretic factor in aldosterone synthesis, 614-615 during pregnancy, 962-963 Atrial natriuretic peptide blood pressure control, 232 Na+ excretion, 432-433 Atrial systole, 203 Atrial tachycardia, 199 Atrioventricular bundle, 177 Atrioventricular node action potential spreading, 190 in heart blocks, 197-198 location, 177 Atrioventricular valves, 202 Attenuation reflex, 843 Auditory canal, 840 Auditory organ, 832f Auditory systems central auditory pathways, 843-844

cochlea, 840-841

Organ of Corti, 841-842

pitch perception, 845-846

sound amplification and attenuation,

842-843 sound and frequency, 840 sound intensity, 845 sound localization, 846-847 sound transmission, 840 Augmented limb leads, 194-195 Augmented unipolar lead, 195 Autoassociation networks graceful degradation, 917

recognition memory, 916f Autocoids, 20, 356 Automatic bladder, 340 Autonomic ganglia, 146, 779 Autonomic nervous system complexities, 153-154 divisions, 146, 147f, 897-898 enteric division, 152-153, 465 extrinsic branches, 468f lungs, 326-327 modulatory nature, 898 neurotransmission, 149-152 neurotransmitter effects, 149 overview, 146

pacemaker modulation, 185-186 related emotions, 898-899 thyroid hormones, 598 transmission across synapses, 146-149 Autonomic reflexes, 152 Autoregulation afferent arteriole pressure, 354 colloidal osmotic pressure, 354 definition, 344

glomerular filtration rate, 353 renal, mechanisms, 344 RPF and GFR, 354f tubuloglomerular feedback, 354-356 Autoregulatory escape, 946 Auxotonic beat, 209 AVAs, see Arteriovenous anastomoses AV bundle, see Atrioventricular bundle AV node, see Atrioventricular node Avogadro's law, 264 AVP, see Arginine vasopressin Axial muscles, 864 Axial streaming, 166 Axons electrical activity recordings, 94f giant squid, 77f myelinated axons, 93, 93f preganglionic axons, 146 reflex, 326

single, extracellular recordings, 94-95

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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