The action potentials illustrated in Fig. 1 were recorded with extracellular electrodes. To examine the properties of action potentials in greater detail, it was necessary to move from these rather crude extracellular techniques to intracellular recording techniques. Figure 2 illustrates schematically how it is possible to record the membrane potential of a living cell. The upper left of Fig. 2A is an idealized nerve cell, composed of a cell body with a portion of its attached axonal process. Outside the nerve cell in the extracellular medium is
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