James M Downey

Cardiac Muscle is Similar to Other Muscle Types 176

Excitation Originates Within the Heart Muscle Cells 176

Excitation is Conducted from Cell to Cell through Gap

Junctions 177 Cardiac Muscle Experiences an Action Potential 179 Cardiac Muscle Exhibits Both Diversity and

Specialization 179 Prolonged Opening of Calcium Channel Causes the

Plateau Phase of the Action Potential 180 Prolonged Refractory Periods Prevent the Heart from Being Tetanized 180

Ionic Fluxes in the Cardiac Muscle Cells 181 Excitation-Contraction Coupling is Accomplished by

Calcium Ions 182 Relaxation is Accomplished by Removing Ca2+ from the Cytosol 183 Strength of Contraction can be Modulated in Cardiac Muscle 183

Stimulation Frequency 183 Catecholamines 184

Inhibition of the Sodium Pump by Cardiac Glycosides 184 Pacemaker Cells Control the Heart Rate 185 Autonomic Nerves Modulate Pacemaker Activity 185

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