Action Potentials Create Extracellular Voltages 188 The Thorax Acts as a Volume Conductor 188 Deflections in the ECG Correspond to Electrical Events in the Heart 189 Segments are Voltages and Intervals are Times 190 Attaching the Electrodes to the Patient 191 Vectors can be Determined from the Limb Leads 191 The Normal Axis is in the Lower Left Quadrant 194 Unipolar Leads are Used to Explore the Chest 194 Augmented Limb Leads Provide Three More Limb Leads 194
Diseases can Affect the Mean Electrical Axis 195
Myocardial Ischemia Produces a Current of Injury 197
The Electrocardiogram can Detect Changes in the
Heart's Rhythm 197 Depressed Conduction Through the Atrioventricular
Node Causes Heart Blocks 198 An Accessory Pathway can Shorten the PR
Interval 198 Ectopic Foci Cause Premature Contractions of the
Heart 199 Electrical Impulses can Reenter to Cause Fibrillation 199
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