Cbd

Ca2+

o o O secretory granules

glucose glucose-6-P

- pyruvate mitochondrion

FIGURE 21 Regulation of insulin secretion by glucose. (A) "Resting" beta cell (blood glucose <100 mg/dl). ADP/ATP ratio is high enough so that ATP-sensitive potassium channels (ASKC) are open, and the membrane potential is about —70 mV. Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) and calcium-sensitive potassium channels (CSKC) are closed. (B) Beta-cell response to increased blood glucose. In response to increased glucose entry and metabolism, the ratio of ADP/ATP decreases, and ATP-sensitive potassium channels close. Voltage-sensitive calcium channels are activated; calcium enters and stimulates insulin secretion. Increased cytosolic calcium inhibits voltage-sensitive calcium channels and activates calcium-sensitive potassium channels, thereby allowing the cell membrane to repolarize and calcium channels to close. Persistence of high glucose results in repeated spiking of electrical discharges and oscillation of intracellular calcium concentrations.

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FIGURE 21 Regulation of insulin secretion by glucose. (A) "Resting" beta cell (blood glucose <100 mg/dl). ADP/ATP ratio is high enough so that ATP-sensitive potassium channels (ASKC) are open, and the membrane potential is about —70 mV. Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) and calcium-sensitive potassium channels (CSKC) are closed. (B) Beta-cell response to increased blood glucose. In response to increased glucose entry and metabolism, the ratio of ADP/ATP decreases, and ATP-sensitive potassium channels close. Voltage-sensitive calcium channels are activated; calcium enters and stimulates insulin secretion. Increased cytosolic calcium inhibits voltage-sensitive calcium channels and activates calcium-sensitive potassium channels, thereby allowing the cell membrane to repolarize and calcium channels to close. Persistence of high glucose results in repeated spiking of electrical discharges and oscillation of intracellular calcium concentrations.

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

One of the main home remedies that you need to follow to prevent gallstones is a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent gallstones. The following are the best home remedies that will help you to treat and prevent gallstones.

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