Key Points continued

spite of the presence of a concentration difference. An ion is said to be "actively transported" if its distribution cannot be described by the Nernst equation.

• The osmotic pressure is the hydrostatic pressure necessary to prevent volume displacement when there is a concentration difference of a solute across a semipermeable membrane. The osmotic pressure is a linear function of the concentration difference across the membrane.

• The reflection coefficient of a solute is a measure of the relative permeabilities of the membrane to water and solute or the ability of the membrane to distinguish between solute and solvent.

• The rate of volume displacement across a membrane is a linear function of the hydrostatic pressure difference across the membrane.

• Facilitated diffusion refers to carrier-mediated processes that are not coupled to a source of energy.

• Primary active transport refers to carrier-mediated processes directly coupled to a source of chemical energy. All primary active transporters in animal cells are ATPases.

• Secondary active transport refers to carrier-mediated processes indirectly coupled to a source of energy—for example, an ion gradient.

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

One of the main home remedies that you need to follow to prevent gallstones is a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent gallstones. The following are the best home remedies that will help you to treat and prevent gallstones.

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