Key Points continued

tissues and triglycerides in adipose tissue to provide substrates forgluconeogenesis. Cortisol also decreases sensitivity of tissues to insulin and decreases triglyceride synthesis in adipose tissue and glucose metabolism in muscle.

• Glucocorticoids protect against injury.

• Glucocorticoid secretion is controlled by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in a negative feedback manner in which glucocorticoids act both at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels to inhibit secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and ACTH.

• The adrenal medullae are modified sympathetic ganglia, and as components of the sympathetic nervous system participate in emergency responses characterized by the "fright, fight, or flight'' reactions.

• The principal hormones of the adrenal medul-lae are norepinephrine and epinephrine, which are derivatives of tyrosine.

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