Key Points continued

(3) fat also cannot be used anaerobically or by cells that lack mitochondria.

• The glucose-fatty acid cycle: When in ample supply, glucose limits oxidation of fat, and when glucose is scarce, oxidation of fat limits glucose consumption. Hormonal regulation of metabolism largely operates through the glucose-fatty acid cycle.

• Glucose is preserved for the brain and other glucose-dependent cells during food deprivation: Insulin secretion decreases, whereas secretion of glucagon and growth hormone

(GH) increases, and T3 production from T4 decreases.

• Substrate utilization during short-term maximal effort depends largely on anaerobic degradation of glycogen stores.

• Plasma free fatty acids provide 50-60% of the fuel during sustained exercise, and plasma glucose and muscle glycogen provide the remainder.

• Long-term regulation of fuel stores depends on signals arising in the adipose tissue and the hypothalamus to regulate food intake and energy expenditure.

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Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

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