Key Points

• The proximal tubule reabsorbs two-thirds of the volume of fluid filtered by the glomeruli. The fluid reabsorbed by the proximal tubule is essentially an isotonic salt solution; however, the proximal tubule preferentially reabsorbs solutes that are useful for metabolism and secretes those that are by-products of metabolism.

• All nephron segments consist of an epithelial cell layer with an underlying basement membrane. Solutes may move across this epithelium transcellularly by crossing both the apical membrane and the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cells, and/or through the junctional complexes and lateral intercellular spaces between epithelial cells.

• The most important primary active transporter in the proximal tubule, as in all nephron segments, is the Na+,K+-ATPase. Because this transporter is present only in the basolateral

Essential Medical Physiology, Third Edition

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