• Saliva is produced in large volumes relative to the weight of the glands, contains relatively high concentrations of K+, is hypotonic, and contains specialized organic substances.
• Acini produce the primary saliva, containing water and electrolytes in concentrations approximately equal to those of plasma.
• Gastric acid is secreted in concentrations as high as 150 mmol/L by the parietal cells, which contain a proton pump (H+,K+-ATPase) in their apical membranes. Acid converts inactive pepsinogen to pepsin, solubilizes some food, and kills bacteria.
• The major stimulants of acid secretion are the hormone gastrin, the vagal mediator acetylcho-line, and histamine, which is released from the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells by gastrin and acetylcholine and acts as a paracrine to stimulate the parietal cells.
• The cephalic phase of gastric secretion is mediated by the vagus nerve, which stimulates the parietal cell via acetylcholine and releases
Essential Medical Physiology, Third Edition
Was this article helpful?
One of the main home remedies that you need to follow to prevent gallstones is a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent gallstones. The following are the best home remedies that will help you to treat and prevent gallstones.