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Macrophage colony stimulating factor, 684

Macrophages, 274

Macula definition, 833 eye structure, 808 Macula densa cellular effect of NaCl, 355f characteristics, 337 Macular yellow, 824 Magnesium ion fluid compartment ionic composition, 6 kidney, 445-446 Magnocellular pathways characteristics, 574 function, 815

ganglion cell function, 808 Main sensory nucleus, 802 Male reproduction development, 729f germinal epithelium, 724-726 Leydig cells, 723-724 overview, 720

sexual differentiation, 728-730 testes, 720-722

testicular function regulation, 731-734 testicular overview, 722-723 testosterone role, 726-728 testosterone secretion and metabolism, 726 Malic enzyme, 601f Malleus, 840 Maltose carbohydrate assimilation, 535 digestion, 533-534 Maltotriose, 533-534 Mammary alveolus, 769f Mammary glands growth and development, 770 ovarian hormone effects, 750 Mannitol, 383-384 MAP, see Mean arterial pressure MAP kinase, see Mitogen-activated protein kinase Mass action, 151 Mass balance definition, 361 kidney, 363, 364f nephron, 364f clearance concept, 366-367 functioning nephrons, 368 GFR determination, 365-366 glomerular filtration rate indicators,

367-370 overview, 363-365 in total body, 362-363 whole body, 363f Mass flow definition, 361 equation, 362 Mass movement cecum and proximal colon, 493 colon, 493f definition, 480 Mast cells, 326

Maternal adaptation, during pregnancy cardiac output, 957 homeostasis challenges, 954 osmoregulation, 961-963 overview, 954 placenta, 954-955 respiratory adjustments, 963-965 sodium balance, 959-961 thirst, 961-963 uterine blood flow, 956-957 vascular resistance, 957

Maternal circulation blood volume, 958-959 cardiac output changes, 957 cardiac performance, 958 overview, 955-956 uterine blood flow, 956-957 vascular resistance, 957 Maximal oxygen consumption definition, 933 in exercise, 934, 939 Maximal pulse, skeletal muscle, 129 Maximum expiratory flow, 277 MCH, see Melanin concentrating hormone

MCHC, see Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration M cones, 822

m-CSF, see Macrophage colony stimulating factor Mean arterial pressure baroreceptor reflex, 227-229 cardiovascular system, 168 regulation overview, 226 Mean circulatory filling pressure, 217 Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, 291

Mean electrical axis disease effect, 195-196 ventricles, 191 Mean pressure, 169 Mechanical work, breathing, 288 Mechanoreceptors characteristics, 790 as nociceptors, 794 in reflexes, 324 respiratory reflexes, 324f somatosensory mechanoreceptors, 789 ventilation control, 316 visceral mechanoreceptors, 795-796 Medial dorsal nucleus, 853 Medial longitudinal fasciculus pathway, 837 structure, 872 Medial longitudinal funiculus, 829 Medial rectus muscle, 826 Medial strabismus, 830 Medial vestibular nucleus function, 837 in tract, 872 Medial vestibulospinal tract characteristics, 837 orgination, 872 Medulla kidney, 333

rhythmic breathing, 318 swallowing center, 482 in taste, 858 ventilation control, 316 Medullary collecting ducts, 396-397 Medullary hormones biosynthesis, 632 physiologic actions, 633-635 Medullary hyperosmolality blood flow, 416-417

countercurrent multiplication system,

417-419 numerical examples, 415 overview, 414-416 urea recycling, 419-420 Medullary hypertonicity, 422 Medullary reticulospinal tract formation, 874-875 origination, 874-875 Megacolon, see Hirschsprung's disease Meiotic divisions, 721 Meissner's corpuscles, 789 Meissner's plexus, see Submucosal plexus Melanin, leptin in fuel storage, 677 Melanin concentrating hormone, 677f a-Melanocyte stimulating hormone leptin in fuel storage, 676-677 negative feedback control, 677f Melanocyte-stimulating hormones, 577 Mellitin, PLA2 resemblence, 622 Membrane biology, historical perspective, 38-39

Membrane capacitance, propagation velocity, 91

Membrane channels ACh-sensitive, conductance measurement, 105f synaptic transmission, 111f Membrane currents, 53 Membrane digestion, 531 Membrane pores, restricted diffusion, 43-44 Membrane potential

Bernstein's hypothesis, 75 Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation, 76 K+ effects, 75f smooth muscle, 140f Membranes bone, 682-683 brush border, 529 cochlea, 840

early membrane biology work, 38-39 electrogenic ion pumps, 66 extracellular recordings, 93-96 fluid-mosaic membrane, 39-40 function, 841

hair cell projection into, 833 intestinal secretory cells, 548 Na+ entry, 372 nonideal, osmosis, 55-57 origin, 64-66 osmosis, 55-57 partitioning, 42f plasma, see Plasma membrane Reissner's membrane, 840 solute distribution, 66-67 in sound processing, 842 sound transmission, 840 structural characteristics, 839 structure and function, 844f time constant measurement, 91f transcapillary solute exchange, 237 Membrane transport carrier-mediated, see Carrier-mediated membrane transport cell volume maintenance, 67-70 electrogenic ion pumps, 66 electrolyte diffusion, 44-49 Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium, 67-70 ion diffusion through biologic channels,

49-53 ion pumps, 67-70

membrane composition and structure,

38-40 Na+-coupled, 61f Na+/K+ pump, 62-63 nonelectrolyte diffusion, 40-41 osmosis, 53-57

pores and restricted diffusion, 43-44 pump-leak model, 63-64 selective barrier diffusion, 41-43 transmembrane electrical potential differences, 64-66 uncharged solute diffusion, 44 Memory anatomic localization, 906-907 associated brain structures, 907f behaviors and neural circuits, 910-911 classical conditioning mechanisms, 913 declarative memory, 905, 906 definition and characteristics, 906 distribution, 916-917 input pattern, 915-916 nondeclarative, see Nondeclarative memory operant conditioning, 913 pattern recognition, 915 PET studies, 908f recognition memory, 916f sensitization in Aplysia, 911-913 types, 906 Menarche, 749 Menstruation endometrial changes, 750f FSH and LH effects cellular actions, 746 corpus luteum formation, 746-747 corpus luteum function, 748 estradiol production, 744-745 follicular development, 745-746 oocyte maturation, 747 ovarian blood flow, 748 overview, 743-744 ovulation, 746 secretion, 753-755 hormonal control blood pattern, 752 cycle regulation, 751-752 ovarian hormones, 742-743, 748-751 overview, 738 pattern in blood, 752 timing, 755-756 ovarian hormone role, 748-749 ovarian-pituitary interactions, 753f MEPPs, see Miniature end-plate potentials Mercury manometer, hydrostatics overview, 160

Merkel's disks, 789

Mesangial cells, glomerular capillaries, 345

Mesovaria, 738 Messenger RNA

alternative splicing, 15f CGRP, 692f

RNA processing overview, 14 Metabolic acidosis cause, 297

characteristics, 456-457 examples, 458 Metabolic alkalosis acid-base balance, 457-458 cause, 297 examples, 459 Metabolic compensation, 297 Metabolic fuels consumption, 661-662 glucose and fat problems, 661 Metabolic hormones adipose tissue, 665-666 fasting, 671f liver, 667 muscle, 666-667 overview, 665 pancreatic islets, 667-668 Metabolic pH, 296 Metabolic theory, 245, 248 Metabolism adrenal cortical hormones, 615 adrenal medulla, 632-633 calcitonin, 691

carbohydrate and lipid, 647f in exercise, 934-935 fasting, 669-671 feeding, 668-669 fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, 641f fuel, see Fuel metabolism glucagon, 639 glucocorticoids, 619-621 glucose, 650f glucose pathways, 640f glycogen, PKA role, 641f growth hormone, 703-704 hormones, 560-561 insulin, 644

muscle carbohydrate and lipid, 648f regulation overview, 660 somatostatin, 656 testosterone, 726 thyroid hormones, 595-597 carbohydrate, 601 lipids, 602 nitrogen, 602 oxidative metabolism, 599 temperature regulation, 599-601 thermogenesis, 599 thyroxine, 596f vitamin D, 693-695 Metabotropic receptors excitatory postsynaptic potentials, 119f slow synaptic potentials, 117-121 Meta-rhodopsin II, 810 Metarterioles, 236 Methemoglobin, 290 N-Methyl-D-aspartate, 914-915

N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor, 116-117 Micelles lipid transport, 540-541 structures, 523f Microcirculation functional anatomy, 236-237 schematic diagram, 236f Microelectrodes, 188 Micropinocytotic vesicles, 237 Microvilli, 530 Micturition neural regulation, 340-341 overview, 338-341 Middle ear sound transmission, 840 structures, 842f Middle penducle, 889 Migrating motility complex, 487 Migrating myoelectric complex, 487 Milieu interieur concept introduction, 158 constancy, 5 definition, 4 origin, 4 Milk ejection reflex, 771 Milk letdown reflex, 771 Milk lipase, 539-540 Milk production, 770 Mineralocorticoids aldosterone effects on kidney, 616-619 function, 608, 609 physiological overview, 615-616 Miniature end-plate potentials acetylcholine release, 108-109 graphs, 108f Minimal volume of the lung, 282 MI pyramidal cells characteristics, 879 electrophysiologic analysis, 879 function, 877 structure, 821 MIT, see Monoiodotyrosine Mitochondria, cardiac muscle cells, 179 Mitogen-activated protein kinase, 30 Mitogens, 29 Mitotic divisions, 721 Mitral cells, 852 Mitral valve, 202

MLF, see Medial longitudinal funiculus MNs, see Motor neurons Modiolus, 842 Monocular zone, 817 Monoglyceride acylation pathway, 541 Monoiodotyrosine formation, 591 secretion, 592-593 storage, 592 Mood, 898f Mossy fibers, 895 Motifs, 17 Motilin characteristics, 474 function, 470 Motility definition, 466 esophageal, regulation, 485 gastric motility, 486-489 large intestine, 492-495 migrating motility complex, 487 small intestine, 489-492 Motor cortex hierarchical arrangement, 879-880f organization, 878f primary, see Primary motor cortex Motor end plate, 99 Motor ganglia, 784 Motor loop, basal ganglia direct and indirect pathway connections, 883f direct pathway, 882, 885, 887 indirect pathway, 887 major connections, 883f Motor neurons alpha neurons, 133, 863-864 Aplysia, 911

axial, proximal, distal muscles, 864 branchiomeric muscles, 862-863 expiratory muscle, 318f extraocular muscles, 862 gamma motor neurons, 869f lower motor neurons, 861, 867-868, 872, 873f motor unit, 864-865 muscle fiber action potential, 865 pool, 864f, 865 postsynaptic potentials, 113f responsiveness, 865 spinal cord, 863f tongue, 863 upper, location, 861 Motor pathways, 786-788 Motor proteins, 843 Motor reflexes, 829 Motor unit innervation, 864-865 skeletal muscle, 133 M pathway functional organization, 822f projections, 820f mRNA, see Messenger RNA MSH, see Melanocyte-stimulating hormones a-MSH, see a-Melanocyte stimulating hormone MUA, see Multiple unit activity Mucin, 274

Mucociliary transport, 274 Mucosa, in GI tract, 466 Mucous cells, stomach, 503 Mucous neck cells, stomach, 503 Mucus function, 498 gastric function, 502 gastric secretion, 511 Mullerian ducts characteristics, 719 development, 728 Multiple sclerosis, 837 Multiple unit activity, 732f

Multiunit smooth muscle, 140 Murmurs, 201, 205 Muscarinic cholinergic receptors, 185 Muscarinic-cholinergic receptors, 148 Muscle abdominal muscles, 278, 318-319 accessory respiratory muscles, 278 axial muscles, 864 branchiomeric muscles, 862-863 breathing muscles, 318f bronchial smooth muscle, 265, 285 cardiac, see Cardiac muscle chemoreflex in exercise, 938 detrusor muscle, 338 distal, motor neurons, 864 exercise training, 939-940 exercising vs. resting, 673f expiratory intercostal muscles, 318-319 extensor, motor neurons, 864 external intercostal muscles, 278 extraocular muscles, 826f, 862 eye muscles, 826-827 fast-twitch fibers, 865 fatigue in exercise, 939 fiber, action potential generation, 865 flexor muscles, 864 gastrointestinal smooth muscle, 480 inferior oblique muscle, 827 inferior rectus muscle, 826-827 insulin effects, 648-649 internal intercostal muscles, 278 intrafusal muscle fibers, 868 intrinsic eye muscles, 827-828 lateral rectus muscle, 826 levator palpebrae muscle, 827 medial rectus muscle, 826 metabolic hormones, 666-667 multiunit smooth muscle, 140 orbicularis oculi muscle, 827 protein turnover, 649f proximal, motor neurons, 864 pupillodilater muscle, 827 respiratory, overview, 278 rigidity, 874

sensory receptors, 795-796 skeletal, see Skeletal muscle smooth, see Smooth muscle spasticity characteristics, 874 static length, 868 striated, see Striated muscle superior oblique muscle, 827 superior rectus muscle, 826-827 tarsalis muscle, 827 tensor tympani muscle, 843 thick and thin filament views, 125f unitary smooth muscle, 140 Muscle cells energy balance, 135-136 excitation, 127-128, 139-141 Muscle spindle components, 867-868 definition, 867

gamma loop system, 869-870 gamma motor neurons, 869f group Ia fibers, 868 group II fibers, 868 organization, 868f in proprioception, 795 Muscularis mucosae, 466 MV, see Minimal volume of the lung Myasthenia gravis, 120 Mydriasis, 830 Myelin, 790 Myelinated axons, 93 Myelinated pulmonary receptors, reflexes, 324

Myenteric plexus, 467 Myocardial ischemia coronary circulation, 251 current of injury, 196-197 Myocardial oxygen consumption, 937 Myoepithelial cells in lactation, 769 salivary glands, 499f Myogenic mechanism, renal autoregulation, 344

Myogenic response, 354 Myogenic theory, 245, 247 Myoglobin in exercise, 939 oxygen, 290 Myometrium, 742 Myopia, 828 Myosin biochemical interactions with actin,

125-126, 138-141 overview, 124, 138 transcapillary solute exchange, 239 Myosin light-chain kinase, 138 Myotactic reflex features, 112f muscle spindle, 869 smooth muscle response, 142 Myotome, 864

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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