Nad

C. Dorsal brain stem and outputs from cerebellum

D. Ventral brain stem and inputs to cerebellum

C. Dorsal brain stem and outputs from cerebellum

ventral lateral &ventral anterior nuclei of the thalamus red nucleus cut cerebellar peduncles superior — middle inferior i i

vestibular nuclei deep cerebellar nuclei: fastigial interposed dentate

D. Ventral brain stem and inputs to cerebellum ventral lateral &ventral anterior nuclei of the thalamus red nucleus

inferior olive ascending sensory

FIGURE 2 Anatomy of the cerebellum. (A) A midsagittal view of the cerebellum and associated structures. (B) Dorsal view of the cerebellar cortex is flattened to reveal the areas that are normally hidden beneath; the individual folia are still folded. If these could be completely smoothed, the cerebellum would be more than 1 m long. The anatomic divisions include the anterior, posterior, and flocculonodular lobes. The functional divisions are shown in shades of blue, and their connections are outlined in Fig. 3. (C) The dorsal brain stem with the cerebellum removed (dashed blue lines) shows the three pairs of cerebellar peduncles; exiting cerebellar fibers project from deep cerebellar nuclei to the thalamus, red nucleus, and brainstem. (D) Ventral brain stem showing the major inputs to the cerebellum. Fibers from the pontine nuclei cross the midline before entering the cerebellum through the massive middle peduncle. The inferior peduncle primarily carries input from the inferior olive and sensory information, particularly from vestibular nuclei.

Middle cerebellar peduncle: mossy fibers enter from pontine nuclei and cross to contralateral cerebellum pontine nuclei inferior olive ascending sensory

Inferior cerebellar peduncle: climbing fibers enter from inferior olive and cross to contralateral cerebellum mossy fibers enter from spinal cord and ascend to ipsalateral cerebellum

FIGURE 2 Anatomy of the cerebellum. (A) A midsagittal view of the cerebellum and associated structures. (B) Dorsal view of the cerebellar cortex is flattened to reveal the areas that are normally hidden beneath; the individual folia are still folded. If these could be completely smoothed, the cerebellum would be more than 1 m long. The anatomic divisions include the anterior, posterior, and flocculonodular lobes. The functional divisions are shown in shades of blue, and their connections are outlined in Fig. 3. (C) The dorsal brain stem with the cerebellum removed (dashed blue lines) shows the three pairs of cerebellar peduncles; exiting cerebellar fibers project from deep cerebellar nuclei to the thalamus, red nucleus, and brainstem. (D) Ventral brain stem showing the major inputs to the cerebellum. Fibers from the pontine nuclei cross the midline before entering the cerebellum through the massive middle peduncle. The inferior peduncle primarily carries input from the inferior olive and sensory information, particularly from vestibular nuclei.

A. Dorsal view of cerebellum and deep cerebellar nuclei Spinocerebellum or paleocerebellum

B. Motor loop of the cerebrocerebellum C. Motor loop of the spinocerebellum

FIGURE 3 Connections of the spinocerebellum, vestibulocerebellum, and cerebrocerebellum:

(A) relationships among the functional divisions, the deep cerebellar nuclei, and the vestibular nuclei;

(B) motor loop of the cerebrocerebellum (see Fig. 1 for details); and (C) motor loop of the spinocerebellum.

Cellular Circuits of the Cerebellum

A. Placement of the nuclei associated with the cerebellum

A. Placement of the nuclei associated with the cerebellum

red nucleus pontine nuclei

Purkinje cells

B. A section through a cerebellar folia red nucleus pontine nuclei inferior olive vestibular nuclei deep cerebellar nuclei parallel fibers

Purkinje cells

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