periventricular hypothalamus medial hypothalamus lateral hypothalamus


corticomedial nuclei central nucleus basolateral nuclei amygdala:

corticomedial nuclei central nucleus basolateral nuclei

FIGURE 3 Neuronal pathways that trigger predatory and affective aggression. (A) Coronal section through the cerebrum (upper panel) with enlargement (lower panel); major divisions of the hypothalamus and amygdala that participate in producing aggressive behavior are shown in blue. (B) Flow of information in the expression of aggression; Affective aggression (left) is displayed during strong emotions such as fear and anger. Predatory aggression (right) is displayed during activities such as hunting.

epileptic seizures. These procedures require that the patient be alert during the surgery while different brain areas are given mild electrical stimulation in order to pinpoint the affected areas and avoid other critical regions. Based on patients' reports, one group of brain areas that consistently evoke intensely pleasurable sensations has been identified. These areas are comparable to those identified in rat and include the septal area, lateral hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area, dorsal pans, and a fiber tract that interconnects all these structures, the medial forebrain bundle. These pleasure centers may provide the physiologic basis for reinforcement of normal survival behaviors, such as eating, drinking, and sex, as well as for abnormal behaviors, such as use of addictive drugs.

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