O

Obstructive sleep apnea, 327

Ocular dominance layers, 808

Oculomotor nerve, extraocular muscles, 862

Oculomotor system accomodation reflex, 828 eye muscle innervation, 826-827 intrinsic eye muscles, 827-828 pupillary light reflex, 828-830 Odorant binding proteins function, 849 olfactory receptors, 850 Odorant receptor proteins, 851 Odorant receptors, 849 Odorotopic map, 852 OFF channel synaptic interactions, 814f visual information, 813-814 17-OHCS, see 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Ohm's law in airway resistance, 284 definition, 157 overview, 163-164 pulmonary vascular resistance, 269 Oil-water coefficient, permeability coefficient relation, 44f OLF, see Ouabain-like factor Olfactory bulb neuronal circuits, 853f structure and function, 852 Olfactory cortex primary pathway, 852-853 secondary pathway, 853-854 third pathway, 854 Olfactory epithelium molecular configuration, 851f organization, 850f Olfactory receptor neurons, 849 Olfactory receptors characteristics, 850 G proteins, 852 odorant binding proteins, 850 odorant receptor proteins, 851 odorous molecules, 850 Olfactory system pathways, 854f Omeprazole, peptic ulcer treatment, 513 OMI, see Oocyte maturation inhibitor ON channel, visual information, 813-814 Oncotic pressure characteristics, 243

hydrostatic pressure comparison, 243f Oocyte maturation inhibitor, 747 Oocytes characteristics, 738 maturation, 747 Open systems, living things as, 4 Operant conditioning, 910 Ophthalmoplegia, 829 Opiates, diarrhea treatment, 476 Opioid receptor, 794

Opsin, in phototransduction cascade, 810 Opsin kinase, 811

Optic chiasm, nerve fiber projection, 817-818

Optic nerve, action potentials, 72f Opticokinetic nystagmus, 829 Optic tract, projection from, 818 Orad area, motility, 487

Oral rehydration therapy, absorption-

secretion balance, 555 Orbicularis oculi muscle, 827 Orbitofrontal cortex, 853 Organic acids reabsorption in proximal tubule, 387 secretion in proximal tubule, 390 Organic bases, secretion in proximal tubule, 390

Organic nitrates, angina treatment, 249 Organification, 591 Organ of Corti hair cells, 839, 841-842 structure, 845f Orthostatic hypotension, 425 Osmolal clearance, 405-406, 413 Osmolarity, body fluid, 6 Osmoreceptors blood pressure control, 231 characteristics, 405 vasopressin secretion, 408-409 Osmoregulation, during pregnancy, 961-963 Osmosis apparatus determination, 54f definition, 53

diffusion differences, 53-54 nonideal membranes, 55-57 as pressure response, 56-57 properties, 54-55 Osmotic diuresis poorly permeant solutes, 383 production by mannitol, 383-384 Osmotic forces, capillary wall, 240-241 Osmotic pressure apparatus determination, 54f definition, 38, 54 glomerular filtration, 347f nonideal membranes, 55-57 Osteoblasts characteristics, 683-684 prathyroid hormone activation, 688f Osteoclasts differentiation, 684f function, 684

prathyroid hormone activation, 688f Osteocytes bone, 682

characteristics, 683-684 Osteoid composition, 682 Osteomalacia, 693 Osteon, 682 Osteoporosis, 699 Otolithic membrane, 833 Otolith organs, 833-835 Ouabain-like factor, 433 Outer auditory hair cells, 839 Outer hair cells, Organ of Corti, 842 Outer plexiform layer, retinal processing, 812 Outer segment, cone, 809 Ova, 738 Oval window cochlea, 840 function, 841 sound transmission, 840

Ovarian cycle blood hormone patterns, 752 and lactation, 774 Ovarian follicle, 738 Ovarian hormones biosynthesis, 745f mammary gland effects, 750 mechanism of action, 751 in menstruation, 748-749 reproductive tract effects, 748 types, 742-743 various effects, 750-751 Ovarian-pituitary interactions, menstrual cycle, 753f Ovaries blood flow, 748 characteristics, 738-739 developmental stages, 739f Overton's law, 43 Oviducts characteristics, 742 role, 759-760 Ovulation

FSH and LH roles, 746 induction, 755f rabbit, 741f Oxidative metabolism, thyroid hormones, 599 Oxidative phosphorylation, muscle cells,

135-136 Oxygen alveolar gas equation, 302 arterial-venous oxygen, 306 blood-oxygen equilibrium curve, 291-292f,

294f, 306f blood and tissues, 295f differentiation, conductance, 302-303 diffusion limitation effects, 314 hemoglobin, 290 hypoventilation effects, 314 ideal alveolar-arterial pulmonary oxygen difference, 301 long-term therapy, chronic lung disease, 330

lung diffusing capacity for oxygen, 304 pathway in diffusion, 303-304 pulmonary, capillary changes, 304-305 uptake in body, 260f Oxygen-blood equilibrium curve, 292 Oxygen cascade overview, 260-261 sea level breathing, 300f Oxygen consumption definition, 933 ejection loop, 213f excess post-exercise, 934 in exercise, 934, 939

heart, systolic pressure-volume area index, 213

maximal, definition, 933, 934, 939 myocardial, in exercise, 937 during pregnancy, 964f sensitivity, 261f thyroxine effects, 600f Oxygen debt, in exercise, 934

Oxygen deficit, in exercise, 934 Oxygen delivery, 306 Oxygen supply, 306

Oxygen tension, during pregnancy, 958-959, 964

Oxygen transport cardiovascular, characteristics, 306-307 exercise training, 940 gas exchange principles, 300-301 overview, 300 Oxyntic gland mucosa as stomach part, 503 structure, 503f Oxyphil cells function, 686 parathyroid gland, 686f Oxytocin blood concentration, 771f cellular actions, 771 during lactation, 771f in parturition, 768-769 posterior pituitary, 582, 583-584 secretion, 566f, 583f

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