Placental Hormones

The placenta is a complex, primarily vascular organ adapted to optimize the exchange of gases, nutrients, and electrolytes between maternal and fetal circulations. In humans, the placenta is also a major endocrine gland capable of producing large amounts of both steroid and peptide hormones and neurohormones. The placenta is the most recently evolved of all mammalian organs, and its endocrine function is highly developed in primates. It is unique among endocrine glands in that, as far as is known, its secretory activity is autonomous and not subject to regulation by maternal or fetal signals. In experimental animals such as the rat, pregnancy is terminated if the pituitary gland is removed during the first half of gestation or if the ovaries, and consequently the corpora lutea, are removed at any time. In primates, the pituitary gland and ovaries are essential only for a brief period after fertilization. After about 7 weeks, the placenta produces enough progesterone to maintain pregnancy. In addition, it also produces large amounts of estrogen, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and human chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS), which is also called human placental lactogen (hPL). It can also secrete growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), corticotro-pin-releasing hormone (CRH), and a long list of other biologically active peptides. During pregnancy there is the unique situation of hormones secreted by one individual, the fetus, regulating the physiology of

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

One of the main home remedies that you need to follow to prevent gallstones is a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent gallstones. The following are the best home remedies that will help you to treat and prevent gallstones.

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