Regional Blood Flow

Blood flow is redistributed during exercise away from vegetative organs and toward actively exercising muscles by both intrinsic (local) and extrinsic (reflex) mechanisms. In isometric exercise, muscle blood flow may actually decrease with compression of arteries and veins in contracted muscles. In contrast, active hyperemia, or an increase in blood flow, occurs in muscles during dynamic exercise. Arterioles dilate in exercising muscles in direct response to local metabolic changes (decreased O2, increased CO2 and H+ ion), adenonsine, and nitric oxide (NO). This local control of muscle blood flow overrides the effect of sympathetic stimulation to

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