S

Saccades, 829 Saccule characteristics, 833-835 function, 831 structure, 836f Sacral segment, spinal cord, 799 Saline solution, infusion in proximal tubule,

379 Saliva functions, 499

inorganic composition, 500-501 ion concentrations, 500f Na+/K+-ATPase, 501 organic composition, 501 overview, 498 production, 497 transport mechanisms, 501f Salivary glands anatomy and innervation, 499-500 ducts, 499 regulation, 502f secretion regulation, 502 Salivon ion and water flux, 501f schematic diagram, 499f Salt reabsorption in proximal tubule,

375-378 taste overview, 857 Salt-sensitive hypertension, 427 Sandwich-type assays hormones, 564f hormones in blood, 563-564 SA nodal cells ACh effects, 185f catecholamine effects, 186f SAR, see Slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors

Sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase,

183 Sarcomere organization, 124f striated muscle, 125 Sarcoplasmic reticulum cardiac muscle cells, 179 skeletal muscle, 127f Sarcotubular network, 179 Saturation, 821

Saturation kinetics, carrier-mediated transport, 57 Scala media, cochlea, 840 Scala tympani, cochlea, 840 Scala vestibuli, cochlea, 840 Scanning electron micrograph collecting duct epithelial cells, 402f glomerular capillary tuft, 345f glomerulus, 346f luminal microvilli, 593f proximal tubule, 376f Sciatic nerve, action potentials, 792f Scratch reflex, 872 Secondary active cotransport, 61 Secondary active countertransport, 61

Secondary active transport absorption, 533 definition, 38 overview, 60-62 Secondary bile acids, 522 Secondary hyperalgesis, 795 Secondary peristalsis, 485 Secondary sexual characteristics, 727-728 Secondary somatosensory cortex, 806 Second-degree heart block, 198 Second heart sound, 204-205 Second messengers arachidonic acid metabolites, 26 basic concept, 24 calcium and calmodulin, 25-26 cyclic AMP system, 24-25 DAG, 26 IP3 system, 26 metabotropic receptors, 118 Second-order sensory neurons, 798 Secretin characteristics, 473-474 family membrane structures, 474f function, 470

in pancreatic secretion, 498 pancreation secretion, 518 Secretion autocrine secretion, 19 balance with absorption, 555, 555f definition, 362, 466, 532 gastric, see Gastric secretion interdigestive secretion, 507 nonparietal secretion, 505 pancreatic, see Pancreatic secretion parietal secretion, 505 Secretory canaliculus, 504 Secretory cells, apical membrane, 548 Secretory granules, 33-34 Sedimentation, airway defense mechanisms,

274 Seizures, 902

Selective estrogen receptor modulators, 751 Sella turcica, 574 Semicircular canals characteristics, 833 paired responses, 835f structure, 836f Seminal vesicles, 722 Seminiferous tubules, 720 Sensitization characteristics, 909 definition, 908 Sensory association area, motor cortex, 880 Sensory cortex brain vesicle development, 780 organization, 878f Sensory ganglia location, 779

peripheral nervous system overview, 784 Sensory neurons Aplysia, 911 molecular events, 912f as rate detectors, 868 Sensory pathways, 784-786

Sensory receptors general properties, 790 in muscles, joints, visceral organs, 795-796 SERCA, see Sarcoendoplasmic reticulum

Ca2+-ATPase Series circuits, flow resistance, 164-165 SERMS, see Selective estrogen receptor modulators Serosa, in GI tract, 466 Serotonin in diffuse modulatory systems, 901-902 lung, 276

in short-term sensitization, 911 Serpentine receptors, see G-protein-coupled receptors Sertoli cells, 720 Serum albumin fluid compartment ionic composition, 5-6 isosmotic saline solution, infusion, 9 size measurement, 7 Serum gastrin, 512 Set-point heat and cold responses, 928 mean arterial pressure, 227 Sex-hormone-binding globulin and ovarian hormones, 743 testosterone, 726 Sexual characteristics, 727-728 Sexual differentiation, male external genitalia development, 729-730 internal reproductive ducts, 728-729 overview, 728

postnatal development, 730 SGLT-1, in absorption, 534 SH2 domains, see Src homology 2 domains Sham feeding, gastric secretion cephalic phase, 508

SHBG, see Sex-hormone-binding globulin Sheath cells, see Sustentacular cells SHGB, see Sex-hormone-binding globulin Shivering, 927 Shock anaphylactic shock, 948 cardiogenic shock, 948 circulatory, see Circulatory shock hypovolemic shock, 253 neurogenic shock, 948 permeability edema, 244 resulting skeletal muscle forces, 130f Shunt flow, compartment model, 309f Shunts arteriovenous shunt, 956 bronchial circulation, 269 carbon dioxide effects, 314 in hypoxemia, 300 pulmonary gas exchange, 308-309 right-to-left shunt, 308 ventilation-perfusion mismatching measurement, 312 Side pressure, hemodynamic system, 161 SIDS, see Sudden infant death syndrome Sigh, 324

Sigmoid colon motility, 493 Signal transduction cyclic GMP, overview, 27-28 G-protein-coupled receptors complexities, 27

densensitization and downregulation,

22-23 ion channels, 26-27 isoforms, 23-24 overview, 21-22

second messenger concept, 24-26 IP3 and DAG, 26f receptor channels, 28 simultaneous signal integration, 32-33 tyrosine kinase, 28-30 SII, see Secondary somatosensory cortex Single breath method description, 305 nitrogen test, 288 ventilation, 268 Sinoatrial node definition, 176

heart activation sequence, 189 Sintered glass disk, diffusion, 41-42 Sinus nerve, arterial pressure sensors, 227 Sinus node, see Sinoatrial node Sinusoids, in bile secretion, 524 Skeletal muscle attachment, 124f attachment and contraction, 134f circulation regulation, 252 contracting, blood flow, 253f excitation, 127-128 excitation-contraction coupling, 127 isometric contraction, 129-131 isotonic contraction, 131-132 length-isometric forces relationship, 131f load vs. velocity, 132f mechanical response in vivo, 133-134 sarcoplasmic reticulum, 127f schematic view, 138f shock response, 130f transverse tubules, 128f Skeletal neuromuscular junction, synaptic transmission, 110-112 Skeletal system growth hormone effects, 704-705 growth vs. maturation, 598 thyroid hormones, 597 Skin sensory projections to spinal cord, 801f somatic sensory nerves, 791f temperature regulation, 926 Sleep

NREM, 327 REM, 328, 862, 903 ventilatory efforts, 325f Sleep apnea cause, 324 high-altitude, 328 obstructive type, 327 Slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors, reflexes, 324 Slow synaptic potentials, 117-121 Slow waves gastric motility, 487

small intestine, 490f SMA, see Supplementary motor area Small intestine absorptive cells, 549f calcium absorption, 544-545 chloride absorption, 551 fluid volumes, 548f iron absorption, 545f motility control, 490-491 movements, 489-490 Na+ and CP secretion, 553f potassium transport, 551-552 slow waves and spike potentials, 490f sodium absorption, 550f, 550-551 structure and innervation, 489 vomiting, 491-492 water secretion, 553-555 Small proteins, in proteinuria, 387 Smell olfactory bulb, 852 olfactory cortex, 852-854 olfactory receptors, 850-852 Smooth muscle actin-myosin biochemical interactions,

138-141 in airway resistance, 285 airways, 265

basic contractive unit, 138 calcium regulation, 139f cell structure, 480 contractile recordings, 143f contraction, 480 contraction steps, 481f energy balance, 143-144 excitation, 140

gastrointestinal, see Gastrointestinal smooth muscle isometric forces, 141f length-force relationship, 141f, 142f mechanical response in vitro, 141 mechanical response in vivo, 141-143 membrane potential, 140f schematic view, 138f Smooth muscle cells, 480 Smooth pursuit movements, eye, 829 Sneeze reflex, 324 Sniff reflex, 324 Snoring, 324

SNs, see Sensory neurons Sodium absorption by intestines, 550f, 550-551 action potential vs. extracellular concentration, 78f bile concentration, 526 concentration during action potentials, 85-86

conductance changes, 80f, 81f cotransport, active reabsorption, 385f daily intake and output, 425 depolarization-permeability relationship,

79f excretion

GFR changes, 429-430 in hypervolemia, 435f integrated control, 435-436 mechanism overview, 428 natriuretic hormones, 432-433 renin, angiotensin, aldosterone, 430-432 fluid compartment ionic composition, 5 functional hypovolemia, 435f gastric juice, 505 gastric secretion, 506 and K+ conductance changes, 83f luminal membrane, 372 mass flow, 362

nerve action potential, 76-78, 83f osmotic diuresis, 384 pancreatic secretion, 514-515 pituitary dwarfism, 708f during pregnancy, 959-961 reabsorption along nephron, 426 reabsorption by CNT and principal cells, 398f renal, reabsorption, 425-428 in saliva, 500 secretion, 553f total body output, 427f Sodium channels aldosterone-responsive distal nephron, 398 blocking by tetrodotoxin, 180 inactivation, 82-83 inactivation recovery, 87f structural and functional unit, 81f three states, 82f transepithelial voltages, 375 voltage-gated, structure, 80-82 Sodium chloride absorption in loop of Henle, 396f ascending limb of loop of Henle, 394f, 394-396

effect on macula densa cells, 355f ingestion per day, 363 reabsorption, 391, 397 tablet ingestion, 9 thin descending limb, 393 Sodium ion/proton antiporter characteristics, 381 function, 372

reabsorptive processes, 384 Sodium permeability basic concept, 78-79 concept test, 79-80 molecular basis for regulation, 80 Sodium pump, inhibition by cardiac glycosides, 184-185 Sodium reabsorption, in nephron, 374f,

374-375 Solute exchange filtration, 239-240

fluid movement across capillary, 239 hydrostatic forces, 240 osmotic forces, 240-241 pathway and mechanism overview, 237-239 uncharged solutes, 44 Solute transport charged solutes, 37 proximal tubule, 379-380 Somatic sensory nerves, skin, 791f

Somatic sensory neurons, 797 Somatomedin hypothesis, growth hormone,

705-707 Somatosensory cortex location, 797

modular organization, 805f thalamic projections to, 806 Somatosensory mechanoreceptors, 789 Somatosensory pathways, head region, 802 Somatostatin biosynthesis, secretion, metabolism, 656

characteristics, 475

effects, 638

function, 580

gastric secretion, 507

GH effects, 710

physiologic actions, 656

secretion, 656

somatotrope actions, 711-713 Somatotopic organization, sensory pathway overview, 786 Somatotrope, GHRH, somatostatin, IGF-I

actions, 711-713 Somatotropin release-inhibiting factor, 580 Sound amplification and attenuation, 842-843 audible wave characteristics, 841f definition, 840 intensity, 845 localization, 846-847

transmission in middle and inner ears, 840 Sour, 857 Space constant measurement, 92f propagation velocity, 91-92 propagation velocity relationship, 92-93 Spare receptors, 568, 569f Spatial summation, ionotropic receptors, 115 Specific compliance, 279 Specificity receptors, 21 Spermatocytes, 720 Spermatogenesis, 720 Spermatogonia, 720 Spermiogenesis, 721 Sperm transport, estrogen role, 759f Spike potentials in contractions, 480 small intestine, 490f Spina bifida, 786 Spinal cord internal structure, 800f lateral corticospinal tract, 875-876 medial vestibulospinal tract, 872 medullary reticulospinal tract, 874-875 motor neurons, 863f organization, 798-800 organization and structure, 799f reticular formation, 874 sensory projections from skin, 801f tectospinal tract, 872, 874 vestibulospinal tract, 872 Spinal nerves, 798 Spinal segment, 798 Spinal tap, 781

Spinal trigeminal nucleus, location, 802 Spinocerebellum characteristics, 890 connections, 893f Purkinje cells, 889 Spinothalamic pathway, 802 Spiral ganglia characteristics, 841 and Organ of Corti, 839 Spirometer, volume measurement, 266f Splanchnic circulation, 253-254 Spleen, in exercise, 939 Spliceosome, RNA processing overview, 14 Squamous cells, 266 SR, see Sarcoplasmic reticulum Src homology 2 domains, 29 SRIF, see Somatotropin release-inhibiting factor Staircase mechanism in exercise, 937 positive effect, 184f Standard temperature and pressure dry, 264 Standing osmotic gradient, bile concentration, 527 Stapes, 840

Starch, hydrolysis by a-amylase, 533f Starling forces afferent and efferent arteriolar resistance, 434f proximal tubule, 378f Starling resistors, 272 Starling's law equation, 239 lung fluid balance, 273 Static muscle length, group II afferents, 868 Steady-state DLCO method, 305 Steatorrhea, 531 Stellate cells cerebellum, 895 receptive field properties, 822f Stereocilia function, 831

structure and function, 832 Stereopsis, 820

Steroid hormone receptors, 31 Steroid hormones action, 32f characteristics, 559 intracellular receptors, 31 and pregnancy, 761f Steroidogenesis, adrenal cortex, 613f Steroids function, 608

testicular, biosynthesis, 724f Stigma, 741

Stimulating electrode, intracellular recording, 73

Stirrup, see Stapes Stomach active transport, 504 anatomy, 503f caudad area, 487-488f divisions, 486f gastric mucosa, 503-504

intraluminal pressures, 487f lipid digestion, 538 orad area, 487 parietal cells, 504 receptive relaxation, 479, 485-486 structure and innervation, 486-487 STPD, see Standard temperature and pressure dry Strabismus, 830

Stress, adrenal cortical effects, 626-627 Stress failure, pulmonary vascular pressures, 269

Stress-relaxation mechanism blood pressure regulation, 233 smooth muscle response, 142 Stretch receptors characteristics, 423 ECF volume sensing, 428 Stretch reflex, see Myotactic reflex Striated duct, salivary glands, 499 Striated muscle actin-myosin biochemical interactions, 126 basic contractile unit, 124-125 calcium regulation, 139f calcium role, 126-127 mechanical response in vitro overview, 128-129 skeletal muscle, 129-132 mechanical response in vivo, skeletal muscle, 133-134 Striola, 835 Stroke volume affecting factors, 208-209 calculation from ejection loop, 207 changes during pregnancy, 958f Strychnine, 116 ST segment, 190, 197 Subarachnoid space, 781 Submucosal plexus, 467 Subsarcolemma cisternae, 179 Substance P, 318 Substantia nigra, 882 Subthalamic nucleus, 882 Suckling, 771f Sucrase carbohydrate assimilation, 535 in digestion, 534 Sudden infant death syndrome, 328 Sulfate, reabsorption in proximal tubule, 388 Summation, skeletal muscle, 130 Sunshine vitamin, 693 Superficial nephrons characteristics, 336 kidney, 333 Superior colliculus function, 862

tectospinal tract origination, 872 Superior laryngeal nerve in breathing, 278 in reflexes, 324 Superior oblique muscle, 827 Superior olivary nucleus in central auditory pathways, 844 function, 839

Superior penducle, 889 Superior rectus muscle, 826-827 Superior vestibular nuclei, 837 Supplementary motor area function, 877 location, 879 Supramaximal pulse, 129 Supraoptic nucleus characteristics, 574 posterior pituitary, 583 Surface epithelial cells, stomach, 503 Surface tension, in breathing, 280-281 Surround receptive fields, 815 Sustentacular cells arterial chemoreceptors, 320 olfactory receptors, 850 Swallowing center, 482 Swallowing reflex cause, 324 chewing, 481-482 esophageal pressure, 484f pharyngeal phase, 482 Swan-Ganz catheter pulmonary wedge pressure, 943 usage, 948 Sweat production, 926-927 Sweet, 857

Sympathetic cardiac efferents, 226 Sympathetic chain, blood pressure control, 226

Sympathetic dilator fibers, 226 Sympathetic efferent fibers, 226 Sympathetic nerves, vascular resistance response, 249f Sympathetic nervous system anxiety feelings, 897 characteristics, 146 overview, 148f Sympathetic stimulation, 176 Symport, 62, 384 Synapses autonomic nervous system, transmission,

146-149 chemical synapses, 98-101 Synaptic cleft, 98 Synaptic delay, 98 Synaptic facilitation, 911 Synaptic junctions, 98f Synaptic potentials excitation, inhibition, integration, 113 fast and slow, 118f ionotropic receptors, 114-117 slow, production by metabotropic receptor, 117-121 Synaptic transmission Ca2+ role, 107f central nervous system overview, 112

postsynaptic mechanisms, 114-117 synaptic potential mechanisms, 113 intracellular recording, 73-74 membrane channels, 111f at neuromuscular junction, 98-99

neuromuscular junction, acetylcholine hypothesis acetylcholinesterase role, 103 iontophoresis, 103-104 overview, 101-102 skeletal neuromuscular junction, sequence of events, 110-112 types, 98 Syncytiotrophoblast, 955 Systemic circulation, 159 Systemic venous pressure, ejection loop, 207 Systole in cardiac cycle, 203 definition, 201 Systolic pressure definition, 204 in pulse pressure, 169 Systolic pressure-volume area index, 213

Relaxation Audio Sounds Babbling Brook

Relaxation Audio Sounds Babbling Brook

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