Stanley G Schultz

Membrane Composition and Structure 38 Historical Perspectives: The Dawning of

Membrane Biology 38 Current Concepts: The Fluid-Mosaic Membrane 39 Diffusion of Nonelectrolytes 40 Diffusion Through Selective Barriers 41 Membrane Pores and Restricted Diffusion 43 Diffusion of Uncharged Solutes 44 Diffusion of Electrolytes 44 Origin of Diffusion Potentials 45 Criteria for Active Transport of Ions 48 Ion Diffusion Through Biologic Channels 49 Determinants of Channel Selectivity 52 Regulation of Channel and Membrane Currents 53 Osmosis 53

Osmotic Flow and Osmotic Pressure Across Nonideal Membranes 55

Volume Flow in Response to a Difference in Pressure 56 Carrier-Mediated Transport 57 Some General Characteristics of Carrier-Mediated Transport 57

Nature of Membrane Carriers 58 Facilitated Diffusion and Active Transport 59 The Pump-Leak Model, the Origin of Transmembrane Electrical Potential Differences, and the Maintenance of Cell Volume 62 The (Na+-K+) Pump 62 The Pump-Leak Model 63

Transmembrane Electrical Potential Differences 64 Electrogenic (or Rheogenic) Ion Pumps 66 Transmembrane Distribution of Solutes Under Steady-State Conditions 66 Gibbs-Donnan Equilibrium, Ion Pumps, and Maintenance of Cell Volume 67

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