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Copyright © 2004, Elsevier Science (USA) All rights reserved.

KEY POINTS (continued)

• Aided by colipase, pancreatic lipase digests triglycerides suspended in an emulsion of fat droplets to free fatty acids and 2-monoglycer-ides, which are solubilized in micelles by bile salts and other amphipathic molecules.

• Micelles are able to diffuse through the unstirred water layer at the surface of the enterocyte, allowing the fat digestion products to contact and diffuse through the brush border membrane.

• Within the enterocyte, triglycerides and phos-pholipids are resynthesized in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and then packaged into chylomicrons, which contain an apoprotein on their surfaces.

• Chylomicrons leave the enterocyte by exocy-tosis and enter the lacteals of the lymphatics because they are too large to pass through the capillary walls.

Chapters 33 and 34 described gastrointestinal moti-lity and secretion and their regulation. Each of these processes is regulated to optimize the digestion and absorption of nutrients. From a teleologic viewpoint, secretion is controlled to provide enzymes, fluids, and electrolytes in the proper locations, at the right times, and in the required quantities to digest foodstuffs. Motility patterns ensure that the ingesta move through the alimentary canal at a rate that provides optimal time for digestion and subsequent absorption. This chapter explains how food is broken down into absorbable molecules and how these by-products are absorbed into the body.

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