The final cerebellar division—the cerebrocerebellum, or neocerebellum—consists of the lateral hemispheres and thus occupies the largest portion of the cerebellum. Input to the cerebrocerebellum is from the pontine nuclei, which relay information from the contralateral sensory motor cortex through the middle cerebellar peduncle. Containing 20 million nerve fibers, this is one of the largest tracts in the central nervous system (CNS). Output from cerebrocerebellar cortex is relayed through the dentate nucleus with exiting fibers in the superior cerebellar peduncle. Two areas serve as targets for this information: (1) the red nucleus and subsequently spinal motor neurons through the rubrospinal tract, and (2) the thalamus and hence premotor and primary motor cortex. These cerebellar pathways play an important role in the planning and timing of movements, allowing for smooth coordination of the different stages of complex motor programs.
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