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VE, see Expired ventilation VT, see Tidal volume VA, see Ventral anterior nucleus Vagal nuclei, 226 Vagal tone, 937 Vagovagal reflex gastric secretion, 508 gastrointestinal tract, 467-468 in receptive relaxation, 486 wipe reflex, 872 withdrawal reflex, 872, 911f Vagus nerve arterial chemoreceptors, 320 in taste, 858 van't Hoffs law, 55, 56 Vasa recta, 417f

Vascular endothelial growth factor, 940 Vascular function curve, 217f, 217—219f Vascular resistance, during pregnancy, 957 Vas deferens, 722

Vasoactive hormones, RBF and GFR, 357 Vasoactive inhibitory peptide, 772 Vasoactive intestinal peptide characteristics, 475-476 glucagon regulation, 643 lungs, 327 Vasocontrictor region, 227 Vasodilator definition, 227 hypertension, 234 Vasomotor center arterial pressure sensors, 227 baroreceptor reflex importance, 229 characteristics, 225 low-pressure receptors, 229-230 neural integration, 227 Vasomotor tone definition, 225 vasomotor center, 227 Vasopressin, see Antidiuretic hormone VC, see Vital capacity Vector cardiography, 191 VEGF, see Vascular endothelial growth factor Velocity definition, 157

force-velocity relationship, 132 parabolic velocity profile, 162 pressure relationship, 160-161 propagation, see Propagation velocity related indices of contractility, 211 Venoconstriction cardiac output effect, 219 in exercise, 937 Venodilation, 219-220 Venous admixture shunts, 309 Venous capacitance, 217 Venous congestion, 942 Venous filling pressure, 208 Venous function curve, 218-221 Venous pressure arterial comparison, 217f arterial pressure relationship, 216-218 in cardiac output, 216 cardiac output relationship, 217-218 elevation in heart failure, 942-943 estimation, 943 heart failure, 942f periphery-heart interactions, 218 Venous return definition, 159, 216 in exercise, 937 Venous tone, 219-220 Ventilation definition, 259 distribution, 287-288 efferent pathways, 318-319 efforts during sleep, 325f in exercise, 935f, 935-936 gravity effects, 310f hypoxic response, 323f, 330f negative feedback control, 316f overview, 267-268 during pregnancy, 963, 964f pressure changes over time, 329f reflexes and negative feedback, 316-317 rhythm generation, 317-318 Ventilation-perfusion ratio between alveoli, 310-312 carbon dioxide effects, 314 characteristics, 309-310 pulmonary gas exchange, 309-310 role in disease, 300 Ventilatory acclimatization, 328-329 Ventilatory reserve, 307 Ventilatory responses arterial chemoreceptors, 320-321 arterial pH, 322 carbon dioxide, 321-322 central chemoreceptors, 319-320 chronic lung disease, 329-330 high altitude acclimatization, 327-329 hypoxic ventilatory response, 322-323 Ventral anterior nucleus innervation, 882 Ventral corticospinal tract, 879 Ventral horns, 800 Ventral nuclei, 843-844 Ventral posterolateral nucleus, 801 Ventral respiratory group, 318 Ventral roots, 798 Ventricles development, 783f electron micrograph of muscle, 177f function curve, 211f generated potentials, 189f left-right coordination, 209-210 nervous system, 779 pressure-volume plot, 207f pressure-volume relationship, 206 Ventricular fibrillation, 199 Ventricular function curves, 210-211, 218, 223

Ventromedial pathway, spinal cord, 872 Ventroposterior medial nucleus, 802 Venule, microcirculation, 236-237 Vergence movements, eye, 829 Vertical gaze center, 862 Vertigo, cranial nerve VIII lesions, 838 Vesicles brain, 780-781 chemical signals, 33-34 micropinocytotic vesicles, 237 seminal vesicles, 722 tubulovesicles, 504 Vessels blood, see Blood vessels collateral vessels, 251 exchange vessel, 237 extra-alveolar vessels, 270 Vestibular ganglion, 836 Vestibular hair cells, 834f Vestibular nuclei, 836-838 Vestibular nystagmus, 829

Vestibular organs function, 831 inner ear, 832f Vestibular system nuclei and central pathways, 836-838 otolith organs, 833-835 semicircular canals, 833 Vestibulocerebellum characteristics, 890 connections, 893f Purkinje cells, 889 Vestibuloreticular pathway, 837 Vestibulospinal tract composition, 872 function, 837 Villi, 530f

VIP, see Vasoactive inhibitory peptide;

Vasoactive intestinal peptide Visceral mechanoreceptors, 795-796 Visceral organs sensory receptors, 795-796 Visceral pain, see Referred pain Visceral sensory fibers, 789 Visual agnosias, 823f Visual cortex blob region, 825f color-specific blobs, 821 cortical ocular dominance columns, 820-821 higher visual processing, 821 M and P pathways, 822f orientation-specific columns, 821 pathway projections, 820f Visual processing, 821 Visual system, see also Eye central visual pathways, 815-820 cerebral cortex, 819f color vision, 821-826 field deficits, 817f oculomotor system, 826-830 overview, 808

phototransduction cascade, 810-812 retinal processing, 812-815 rod and cone photoreceptors, 809-810 visual cortex, 820-821 Vital capacity, 266 Vitamin A absorption, 544 Vitamin B1 absorption, 543 Vitamin B2 absorption, 543 Vitamin B6 absorption, 543 Vitamin B12 absorption, 543-544 Vitamin C absorption, 544 Vitamin D

absorption, 544

calcium absorption regulation, 545 intracellular receptors, 31 Vitamin D3, see 1,25-

Dihydroxycholecalciferol Vitamin E absorption, 544 Vitamin K absorption, 544 Vitamins, 543-544 Vitreal chamber, 828 Vitreous humor, 828

Vm, see Transmembrane electrical potential differences

VO2 max, see Maximal oxygen consumption

VNO, see Vomeronasal organ

Vocal cords, airway defense mechanisms, 273

Voltage dependence of neurotransmitter release, 106

extracellular, action potentials, 188 nephron epithelial cells, 375 proximal tubule, 377f, 377-378 segments as, 190-191

sensitivity, calcium and calmodulin, 25-26 Voltage-clamp technique apparatus diagram, 79f voltage-dependent sodium permeability test, 79-80 Voltage-dependent calcium channels, 180 Voltage-dependent sodium permeability basic concept, 78-79 concept test, 79-80 Voltage-gated fast sodium channels, 180 Voltage-gated sodium channel, 80-82 Volume conductor, thorax as, 188-189 Volume flow, see Osmosis Volume receptors, 230 Vomeronasal organ, 854 Vomiting and characteristics, 491-492 VPL, see Ventral posterolateral nucleus VPM, see Ventroposterior medial nucleus VRG, see Ventral respiratory group

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