Ventilation

Ventilation is defined as the volume of air moved into or out of the lungs in a given time, and it can be changed by changing either the volume of a breath (VT) or the respiratory frequency (fR). In an average healthy human, Vt is about 500 mL and fR is about 12 breaths/min, so expired ventilation (Ve) is about 6 LBTPs/min (= 0.5 L/breath ■ 12 breaths/min). If either Vt or fR are doubled, then Ve will double. Similar reductions in fR or Vt also have equivalent effects on Ve.

Because ventilation is a tidal process and the conducting airways do not participate in gas exchange, not all of the inspired volume is effective at gas exchange. Figure 9 shows that only a part of Vt is

500 mL

150 mL-

150 mL-

End exp.

Vd

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