X

Depolarization

Hyperpolarization

10 msec

Overshoot

Action Potential

Undershoot or Hyperpolarizing Afterpotential

FIGURE 3 Intracellular recording of the action potential. (Top) A second intracellular microelectrode is used to hyperpolarize or depolarize the cell artificially. (Middle) Hyperpolarizing and then depolarizing current pulses of increasing amplitudes were passed into the cell. (Bottom) If the magnitude of the depolarization current is sufficient to depolarize the membrane potential to threshold, an action potential is initiated. (Modified from Kandel ER. The cellular basis of behavior. San Francisco, Freeman, 1976.)

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