Active Listening

Active Listening

We can all recall situations where we have utterly failed to listen to what someone else is saying. For various reasons, we are simply not taking in anything useful. How many times have you been introduced to a person by name only to not know what their name is thirty seconds later?

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Initiation of a Consulting Relationship

Successful initiation of the consulting relationship is crucial to the success of the treatment process. It is important for consultants to use positive interpersonal skills in their interactions with consultees. Some characteristics that appear to enhance the relationship between the consultant and consultee include active listening by the consultant and consultant acceptance of the consultee's perspective through nonjudgmental statements, openness, nondefensiveness, and flexibility.

Communication Sample

The remainder of the discussion went similarly round and round. This couple is conflict-avoidant. Little direct anger was expressed throughout the interaction however, they concurred during debriefing that they probably would not have carried on such a discussion at all at home. As it was, they spent most of their time describing the problem and summarizing their own positions. There was minimal evidence of understanding one another, expression of feelings, or problem solution statements. Unlike many couples, however, they did manage to stay on the topic, they shared the talk time, and they demonstrated fair-to-good nonverbal sending and listening skills. Unfortunately, their natural pattern at home was to withdraw from potential conflict discussions even before reaching the level of wheel-spinning problem description evident in the observed sample.

Assemble The Haccp Team

Once management agrees to the HACCP concept, an HACCP coordinator should be appointed to lead, coordinate, and build the HACCP team. The team leader may require an education in HACCP. In addition to leadership and coordination skills, this person should be creative, have good communication and listening skills, and

Experiential Learning And The Development Of Selfawareness

In didactic and experiential settings, the psychotherapist learns a type of active listening that is part of all psychotherapeutic relationships. The listening is active in that when the therapist is silently listening, he or she is also recording and conceptualizing the content of a patient's communications and is also steadily attempting to experience what is being described by the patient from the patient's perspective (empathic understanding in the psychodynamic frame of reference). This vacillation of ego states within the mind of the therapist, from a dispassionate scientific observer of information to intimate vicarious immersion with the

Conducting An Exercise Consultation

A key element of the intervention is that the consultation is client-centred, which means that individuals should consider their own reasons for being active and should choose their own activity goals. Individuals may be more likely to achieve their goals if they have devised them. In addition, the activity goals should be tailored to the individuals' needs and lifestyle. Good interpersonal skills are essential, which consist of communication (verbal and non-verbal), active listening and expressing empathy. Correct non-verbal communication can be achieved through an open posture (e.g. avoid crossing arms or legs), leaning towards the client, use of appropriate eye contact and a relaxed style to put the participant at ease and to convey interest and atten tion.Active listening shows the individual that the consultant has listened carefully and understands what he or she has said. This can be demonstrated by 'parroting' (i.e. repeating the key words and phrases that the client used) and...

David Reitman and Nichole Jurbergs

An early example of the CST approach is the four-step model introduced by Arthur L. Robin, Sharon L. Foster, and colleagues as a component of their problem-solving communication training (PSCT) for parents and adolescents. During the first of a course of four to six sessions, families are introduced to the model. Specifically, families are told to (1) define the problem concisely without accusations, (2) brainstorm alternative solutions, (3) evaluate solutions by listing their positive and negative consequences and deciding on a mutually satisfactory agreement, and, finally (4) specify the actions required to implement the solution. This training also involves the therapist's provision of feedback, modeling, and behavioral rehearsal (i.e., role-play) to correct negative habits. Families are also taught to self-monitor negative communication patterns such as interruptions, lack of eye contact, and sarcasm, and to replace them with more effective behaviors such as maintaining eye...

Cognitive Distortions And Treatment Interventions

The goals in using behavioral techniques within the context of CBT are manifold. The first goal is to utilize direct behavioral strategies and techniques to test dysfunctional thoughts and behaviors. A second use of behavioral techniques is to practice new behaviors as homework. Certain behaviors can be practiced in the office, and then practiced at home. Homework can range from behaving and acting differently, practicing active listening, being verbally or physically affectionate, or doing things in a new way. Activity scheduling is especially useful for patients who have experienced a crisis and are feeling overwhelmed, the activity schedule can be used to plan more effective time use. Time can be allotted for both caring for oneself and completing necessary tasks.

Empirical Studies A Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

In all but one controlled study, EMDR appeared to be equivalent in treatment outcome to CBT comparison conditions and was reported to require fewer direct treatment and or homework hours. There are reports that EMDR may be better tolerated by clients than traditional exposure, perhaps because it typically results in a rapid in-session decrease in anxiety (as measured by SUD ratings). When EMDR was compared to other treatments such as relaxation therapy, standard mental health treatment in an HMO, and active listening, it was found to be superior on numerous measures. Two of these studies compared EMDR in actual field settings

Requirements For Improved Care

The quality of life of patients with all grades of heart failure could be significantly improved by applying the management principles advocated in palliative care, fundamental to which is good communication. As noted above, communication with heart failure patients is often inadequate, whereas in palliative care good communication with patients is regarded as a pre-requisite for optimum patient care. Clearly this concept of communication is not synonymous with simply asking the correct questions and taking an adequate history. In brief, there are considered to be three main components to good communica-tion34 (1) active listening (not a universal attribute of doctors), the specific task of (2) breaking bad news, and (3) therapeutic dialogue. The objective of this process is to ensure that the patient understands the implications of his illness and that his concerns and aspirations are addressed. The skills required to achieve these outcomes sensitively will have to be learned. The...


Being a good interviewer requires good clinical skill that is part common sense and part professional training and experience. Interviewers need to be sensitive to the underlying messages and concerns of their clients and would do well to function according to the golden rule of trying to walk in the other person's moccasins. Some aspects of interviewing that are the most difficult to master are how to ask questions in an open-ended and nonleading way, how to express empathy and understanding while maintaining professional objectivity, how to keep focused on the purposes of the interaction, and how to avoid getting sucked into providing specific advice when this is not appropriate. The new interviewer needs to make the important transition from interacting as a concerned friend to acting as a trained professional. Often it is necessary to suspend one's value and belief systems in order to be helpful to clients, who need to be helped within their own values and beliefs unless these...

Arnold A Lazarus

Self-efficacy People estimate and judge their own capabilities of organizing and executing various courses of action. Their behaviors will be heavily influenced by whether or not they perceive themselves as capable of attaining specific goals. In many situations, to successfully accomplish a desired outcome, a person needs to be convinced of his her effectiveness, strength, or power to do so. social learning theory A point of view that explains simple and complex behaviors by combining data derived from conditioning with known facts of cognitive mediation. Thus, there is emphasis on overt learning (e.g., habits), vicarious learning, and symbolic activity (e.g., language) to account for the development, maintenance, and modification of behavior. social skills training Social skill is a construct that includes a broad array of interpersonal competencies including as-sertiveness, warmth, empathy, conversational facility, per-ceptiveness, good listening skills, and clarity of verbal...

Brian Baucom

BCT assumes that couples engage in negative interaction patterns, such as coercion and its example demand withdraw, because they lack the necessary communication skills to effectively ask for change. Based on this assumption, it is possible to improve the communication of couples by teaching them the skills that they lack. BCT uses didactic instruction, modeling, and monitored rehearsal to teach communication skills that are assumed to be adaptive for all couples. Both speaking and listening skills are taught. Speaker skills include paraphrasing, asking open-ended questions, behavioral pinpointing, speaking subjectively (for example, using words that convey feelings), speaking about the partner and the relationship, and using tact and timing. Skills for the listener include demonstrating acceptance, adopting the speaker's perspective, and responding empathically and respectfully (Epstein & Baucom, 2002).


From its inception, the traditional interventions associated with BMT have included communication and problem-solving skills training and behavioral exchange techniques. Over the years, in many empirical studies, both interventions have been shown to be highly correlated with marital satisfaction. Although communication problem is probably the number one complaint of couples seeking therapy and most therapy approaches work on improving communication between partners in some manner, the hallmark of BMT has been direct training in skill acquisition. The therapist is likely to employ a basic communication training manual, such as We Can Work It Out, written by Clifford Notarius and Howard Markman in 1993. Throughout the course of treatment, the therapist employs any number of the following types of interventions to help couples modify their patterns of miscommunication and to acquire improved problemsolving skills didactic instruction, behavioral rehearsal, coaching and feedback about...