Positive Affirmations for the Day

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Mindzoom Affirmations Subliminal Software Summary


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My Mindzoom Affirmations Subliminal Software Review

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Keeping a positive attitude

As with any chronic disease process, a positive attitude can't cure endometriosis, but it can make the disease much more tolerable for you and your family and friends. Staying positive may be an easy concept, but when you have to walk the walk (not just talk the talk), the concept isn't that easy. However, you can express a positive attitude simply through an optimistic rather than pessimistic attitude toward life. We're not the only people in the world to say that a positive attitude can overcome a lot of ills. Consider these studies and their conclusions

Areas of High Prevalence

Aiyete, about 100 km southwest of Ibadan, recorded a prevalence of 37 100041 and Igbo-Ora town found a prevalence of 5.3 1000.45 Both studies were conducted by the same author using the WHO protocol. Aiyete and Igbo-Ora are inhabited by the same ethnic group and are only 20 km apart. One plausible explanation for this marked difference in the prevalence rates is concealment of the illness because of the stigma associated with epilepsy among the residents of Igbo-Ora and a positive attitude of residents of Aiyete to declare their illness. But, a more possible logical explanation for the low prevalence in Igbo-Ora may be the availability of effective primary healthcare systems with emphasis on prevention of childhood infectious diseases, improved antenatal care, and health education.42

Generally Recognized As Safe Notification

Instead of the formal GRAS affirmation petition, the FDA initiated a new procedure for GRAS ingredients, the GRAS notification. Under the notification process, a manufacturer makes a determination that an ingredient is GRAS, and instead of petitioning the FDA to affirm this determination by formal rulemaking, it submits a notification to the FDA of its GRAS determination. Within 90 days, the FDA responds to the manufacturer that either (i) the agency does not question the basis for the manufacturer's GRAS determination, or that (ii) FDA concludes that the notice does not provide a sufficient basis for a GRAS determination. In any event, the FDA does not formally recognize the GRAS status of the ingredient as it did under the affirmation process. The notification process has been valuable to food and food ingredient manufacturers, as it is much faster and less burdensome than the GRAS affirmation process however, its utility for pharmaceutical excipient manufacturers is less clear....

Empirical Studies

Higher awareness of vaginal lubrication were the most significant predictors of both subjective and physiological sexual arousal. These results would suggest that respondents who have a positive attitude to their sexual responses, and who are attuned to their levels of arousal, are more likely to experience higher levels of both physiological and subjective sexual arousal. Thus, arousal training would be expected to be an effective therapy with women experiencing inorgasmia.

Getting ready for a bowel prep

The phrase This too shall pass probably has no greater significance than when you're doing a bowel prep (a cleansing of the intestines) to reduce the risk of complications after the surgery. (And remember the dual meaning to this It's going to pass physically and mentally.) So put your positive attitude hat on as we answer your questions about a bowel prep.

The Early 1900s Prior to 1950

Suggestion was a powerful tool that cured many physical ailments. Part of the efficacy of the treatment was due to patients' unquestionable faith in medical doctors. Suggestive procedures included surgery, massage, or sugar pills (placebos). Weir Mitchell and Paul Dubois had noted considerable success with such treatment regimens. Paul Dubois instituted the rest cure in 1904, which entailed isolation in a nursing home, overfeeding of milk products, massage, and electrotherapy. He spoke with his patients at length, persuading them that indeed their medical status was improving. Moral persuasion continued to develop, which can be followed to Norman Vincent Peale's (1952) book The Power of Positive Thinking.

Empathyaltruism Hypothesis

The notion of empathy refers to one person vicariously experiencing the perception, emotions, feelings, and thoughts of another person. Traditionally, empathy has been viewed as the basis for all positive social relationships. Various theorists define the concept of empathy differently. For example, clinical psychologists therapists include in the definition the therapist's intellectual understanding of the client, the therapist's sharing of the client's feelings, the effectiveness and ease of communication, and the therapist's positive attitude toward the client. Other psychologists (e.g., cognitive psychologists) emphasize the cognitive aspects of empathy, and focus on the ability of one person to understand intellectually the inner experience of another person. Developmental psychologists may approach empathy as a direct sharing of feelings between parent and infant, and consider it to be a major factor in the maturation process. Experimental social psychologists...

The Existential And Developmental Links Between Love And Power

Power both try to overcome loneliness, and the sense of man's insufficiency stemming from this loneliness, through duplication of his individuality. In both love and power, the Other is mobilized as an affirmation of the lover's subjectivity and will. It goes without saying that both are attempts to overcome his sense of weakness as well, and that both answer his dependency needs. Given the fact that the aims of love and power are so close yet can never be entirely achieved, it is inevitable that the one may be called upon to bolster the other. (Though it is not our primary concern here, it is also true, as Morgenthau suggests, that power seeks a modicum of love The political philosophies which emphasize the stability of power relationships, such as those of monarchies and autocracies, make a point of appealing to the love of the subject for the ruler.)

Western Religious Thought Death in Biblical Thought

Put in its simplest terms, an ancient desert god named Yahweh came to be regarded not only as the national god of a holy nation, but ultimately as the one and only God of the universe. These momentous shifts in the biblical understanding of God were paralleled by remarkable changes in biblical views of death, beginning with the denial and concluding with the affirmation of individual postmortem existence. ruach, survived the cessation of bodily functions in some spiritual fashion. She'ol was reconceived as a holding place for the dead until their ultimate fate was decided at a final judgment. More significantly, She'ol was divided into compartments reflecting the moral character of the dead, wherein rewards and punishments were already meted out in anticipation of the catastrophic end of the existing world order (Enoch 22 9-14). Thus, death held no terror for the righteous. In fact, death through martyrdom was seen as a seal of divine favor (2 Macc. 6 30-31) and even premature death...

Dipeptidyl Peptidase Iv Dppiv

Several DPP-IV crystal structures have recently been published, which allow structure-based drug design to be used in the search for new and different classes of DPP-IV inhibitors. Published DPP-IV crystal structures show a variety of bound ligands, including Val-Pyr, in the 1N1M (Rasmussen et al., 2003) structure. Other published structures including 1PGQ (Oefner et al., 2003), 1NU6, and 1NU8 (Thoma et al., 2003) have very similar conformations around the active site, affirming that this may be a suitable target for virtual screening. Ward et al. (2005) used a subset of 800,000 compounds for the starting point of the virtual screen. Filtering on physical properties and chemical filters reduced this number to around 500,000 compounds. Tautomer, protonation state, and stereogenic center enumeration using the in-house software and Corina increased the number of structures to around 750,000 in the single-conformer database. The number of structures in the multiconformer database is...

The Flavour and Fragrance Industry Sectors and Materials

Engineering Design For Perfume Industry

In the 1950s and 1960s, consumers welcomed technological advances and were fascinated by and had a positive attitude towards progress. Better tasting, strongly flavoured food was just as acceptable as new convenience products, which often still required compromises in taste. The acceptance of synthetic materials was all-embracing this was also the case in the flavour sector.

Developing An Haccp Program

HACCP design, implementation, and maintenance is not easy. It requires strong support from top management. A commitment of human and monetary resources is needed to make the system work. When Pillsbury first decided to implement HACCP, the CEO publicly stated that all raises, promotions, and evaluations would be based on developing and implementing HACCP to insure safe food production (Stier and Blumenthal, 1995). Now that was a strong statement of support Employees ultimately determine the success or failure of HACCP. Therefore, training programs are essential to develop a positive attitude about food safety and to help empower personnel to maintain the HACCP program. Because prerequisite programs build the foundation of HACCP, these must be reviewed, and their soundness must be verified before starting HACCP. Implementing HACCP takes time. Experience has shown that installation and implementation takes between six months and two years.

Current Catholic Teaching

In 1987 the Catholic Church provided guidance on reproductive medicine and embryo research in Donum vitae (Respect for human life). Donum vitae poses and then answers a key question how could a human individual not be a human person The Magisterium has not expressly committed itself to an affirmation of a philosophical nature, but it constantly reaffirms the moral condemnation of any kind of procured abortion (Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, 1987, part I, no. 1). In other words, immediate hominization is not affirmed doctrinally but its implications are fully asserted morally, not just for abortion some weeks into a pregnancy but in regard to the embryo at the earliest moment. Donum vitae insists

Sterilisation by irradiation

Gamma radiation has been approved for use in over 40 countries for the preservation of food, which it does not only by killing pathogens and spoilage organisms but also by inhibiting processes that lead to sprouting and ripening. The practice has aroused a lot of controversy, largely due to concerns about health and safety, although the first patent applications for its use date back nearly a hundred years Although the irradiated product does not become radioactive, there is a general suspicion on the part of the public about anything to do with radiation, which has led to its use on food being only very gradually accepted by consumers. In this respect Europe lags behind the USA, where during the 1990s a positive attitude towards irradiation of food both by professional bodies and the media has led to a more widespread acceptance of the technology. Gamma radiation is used in situations where heat sterilisation would be inappropriate, because of undesirable effects on the texture,...

Patenting genes and gene therapy legal and ethical aspects

This generally positive attitude towards patents on genes experienced a remarkable change when in 1991 the National Institutes of Health (NIH) filed an application disclosing 3421 so-called expressed sequence tags (ESTs), corresponding to fragments of more than 300 genes expressed in human brain tissue, of which no other function was disclosed than that of being used to identify an expressed gene, or of being used as a sequence-tagged site marker to locate the gene on a physical map of the genome (Caskey et al 1995). Despite the failure of NIH to obtain the patent and its subsequent withdrawal of the application (Straus 1995), the year 1991 clearly constituted a milestone in many respects the NIH application reflected a new, revolutionary approach to characterizing the human genome through a large-scale (i.e. sequence-based) approach as opposed to the traditional functional approach. Whereas in the latter method, which involves a number of cumbersome steps, at least one function of...

Subjective Dominance Law Of

SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION EFFECTS PHENOMENA. The status of consciousness in the information-processing of sensory data traditionally has been a thorny issue, based partly on the definitions of fuzzy, often circular, terms such as preconscious (mental contents that are not currently in consciousness but are accessible to it by focusing attention on them), perception-consciousness system (a subsystem of the mental apparatus characterized by consciousness, and getting input from the external world by sensory receptors and the preconscious via the activation of memories), subconscious (operating existing outside of consciousness), conscious consciousness (relating to the function of the mind through which one is aware of mental experiences such as thoughts, emotions, perceptions, and wishes the normal mental condition of the waking state of humans), unconscious unconsciousness (lacking consciousness awareness of mental experiences such as emotions, perceptions, and thoughts), subliminal...

Pioneers and Hallucinogens

Popularity of these books made them vehicles for teaching the public about the process of learning about a cultural other, but further examination led to the conclusion that they were works of fiction (De Mille, 1976, 1990). Still, the message that drug use in ritual applications could lead to positive, life-affirming experiences remained consistent in both the ethnographic and fictional works on non-Western drug use.

The Fundamental Moral Question Do People with Dementia Count

Despite the seriousness of dementia and the responsibilities it creates for caregivers, it is ethically important that the person with dementia not be judged by hypercognitive values (Post, 1995, 2000a). The self is not cognition alone, but is rather a complex entity with emotional and relational aspects that should be deemed morally significant and worthy of affirmation (Sabat). A bias against the deeply forgetful is especially pronounced in personhood theories of moral status in which persons are defined by the presence of a set of cognitive abilities (Kitwood). After discussion of the disparities in bioethical thinking about what constitutes a person, Stanley Rudman concludes, It is clear that the emphasis on rationality easily leads to diminished concern for certain human beings such as infants, and the senile, groups of people who have, under the influence of both Christian and humanistic considerations, been given special considerations (Rudman, p. 47). Often, the personhood...

The Privacy of Mental Objects

The feelings are not just about the behaviors, however. The feelings are actually at a level above the level of the behavior and the context. That is, feelings consist precisely of the relationship between the behavior, such as a smile, and the context, such as meeting a friend. A smile in that context is happiness. An approving speech in the context of an apparent free expression of opinion is a positive attitude. A feeling of fluency in the absence of any other explanation is familiarity. However, just as the behaviors are public, so, too, are the contexts. They are, after all, no more than social systems and settings.

Enhancing Quality of Life

Empty and make no efforts to relate to the person in ways that enhance his or her experience, then quality of life is minimal. Steven R. Sabat, who has produced the definitive observer study of the experience of dementia, underscores the extent to which the dignity and value of the person with dementia can be maintained through affirmation and an existential perspective.

Elements Of Cbt For Adult Adhd

The most common core beliefs encountered in adults with ADHD cluster around notions of failure (I've not fulfilled my potential), defectiveness (I'm inadequate), social undesirability exclusion (I'm different and no one understands me), and incompetence (I cannot handle life). These beliefs often stem from actual life circumstances and seem to make perfect sense based on the patient's described experience (e.g., I frequently failed exams and classes and often had to attend summer school). However, reexamining these events, simultaneously affirming the patient's affective experience and reexamining the accounts based on a retrospective understanding of ADHD, often opens up novel and or expanded interpretations (e.g., I did better when I had a teacher who answered my questions without making me feel that I was stupid).

Hasan Aziz and Zarin Mogal

Awareness of epilepsy amongst Chinese is much more than that observed in developed countries, but the attitude is more negative.33 The favorable attitude observed among people of Taiwan is attributed to the western culture and socioeconomic system.34 In India although the awareness of epilepsy has been found to be comparable to that in the western countries, the attitudes are much more negative.25 A positive attitude can be developed in the community if people are well informed about epilepsy. A research among teachers in Zimbabwe demonstrates the same.35

Sugar Macronutrient Substitutes Of Commercial Significance

In this section, the five sweeteners maltitol, lactitol, isomalt, fructooligosaccharide sweetener, and erythritol are discussed. Each substance attempts to deliver all the functionality of sucrose thus, they are sugar macronutrient substitutes (MNSs). All these sweeteners are approved for use following the GRAS affirmation process rather than the FAP process. The bioavailable calorie content of the sugar MNSs is a subject of substantial debate. In the United States, specific bioavailable calorie contents have been assigned to each sugar MNS, whereas in the European Union, a value of 2.4 cal g has been assigned for all sugar MNSs. Comparative data on these sweeteners are presented in Table 4.

Endometriosis Is All in Your Head

Even doctors used to believe that endometriosis was a psychological disease. The prevailing attitude was that, if you just stopped thinking about yourself all the time, all the pain would disappear. Some doctors actually believed that a woman's positive attitude would make the pain go away. Unfortunately, some professionals still use this rationale today. Although a positive attitude is certainly good to have throughout your life, you probably know that attitude doesn't decrease your endometriosis one bit. Endometriosis isn't just in your head (although it can be endometriosis has been found in the brain See Chapter 6 for more info) it's in your pelvis, and it hurts.

Equivalence Principle

Arises from an individual's failure to establish a sense of identity during this fifth stage) at this stage, also, decisions concerning sexual identity, occupation, and adult life-plans generally are made intimacy versus isolation -during young adulthood, when the person has found himself' and knows where he's going, then intimacy with another person is possible however, if adolescence has passed without proper role identity and resolution, isolation from others may be the result generativity versus stagnation - while in middle or full adulthood, the person must choose to continue her mental growth, health, creativity, and productivity or else risk the chance of stagnation and loss of growth integrity versus despair -this last stage is a crisis of old age or maturity that challenges a person to choose between maintaining feelings of worth and integrity that have been built up or to yield to opposing feelings of despair and resignation where one senses that life has been a futile waste...

Death in Systematic Religious Thought

Confession was followed with the traditional Jewish affirmation of faith Hear, O Israel The Lord is our God, the Lord is One (Deut. 6 4). reformers retained the concept of the soul's immortality and eternal destiny. But they both undercut the entire penitential system with a different understanding of divine mercy and justice. The blood of Christ is the sole satisfaction for the sins of believers. Thus, medieval notions of a purgatorial state and a treasury of merits fell to the ground because these practices compromised the sole ground of salvation in Christ through faith. What remained for the reformers was an affirmation of the imperishable soul, which immediately enters its eternal reward or punishment upon separation from the body in death. The older idea of a general resurrection and judgment at the End of the Age was retained, but this last state of the soul only ratifies and perfects the fate of the saved and the damned at death. 7. For both Jews and Christians, there is hope...

Goals Of Medical Ethics

Ambitious and diverse goals have been proposed for medical ethics education, including increased awareness of ethical issues a cultivation of basic ethical commitments more humane medical practice tolerance of conflicting views development of analytic skill in moral reasoning enhanced intellectual development in ethics and the humanities positive attitudes toward patients less paternalism in clinical practice higher professional conduct and improved clinical decision making (Callahan Miles et al.). To recognize ethical issues as they appear in clinical care usually requires a positive attitude concerning the importance of the humanistic and value-laden aspects of medical care. For example, a physician's decision regarding chemotherapy for a woman with breast cancer involves the physician's awareness of the biomedical issues and of the morbidity and mortality of the disease, as well as of the patient's own views regarding continued life, her body image, and the morbidity of treatment....

The Body as a Cultural Phenomenon

It has been suggested that in contemporary civilization the human body can no longer be considered a bounded entity, in part because of the destabilizing impact of consumer culture and its accompanying barrage of images. These images stimulate needs and desires, as well as the corresponding changes in the way the social space we inhabit is arranged with respect to physical objects and other people (Featherstone et al.). In this process, fixed life-cycle categories have become blurred into a more fluid life course in which one's look and feel may conflict with one's biological and chronological age some people may even experience conflict between age-appropriate behavior and subjective experience. In addition, the goals of bodily self-care have changed from spiritual salvation, to enhanced health, and finally to a marketable self (Featherstone et al. cf. Foucault and Bordo). As Susan Bordo has observed, techniques of body care are not directed primarily toward weight loss, but toward...

Piano Theory Of Hearing

PIDDINGTON'S COMPENSATORY HUMOR THEORY. The English anthropologist Ralph Piddington refers to his theoretical approach toward humor as the compensatory theory of humor, which is a concept derived from the relationship between elementary laughter and laughter at the ludicrous in which the principle of psychic compensation (i.e., a hypothesized mechanism by which one seeks to make up for a real or imagined psychological defect by developing or exaggerating a psychological strength) is invoked. According to Piddington, laughter serves a social function by a process that is analogous to exaggeration of the opposite character. The reasoning behind Piddington's compensatory humor theory is that all ludicrous situations are potentially subversive to the social order, and the reaction of laughter (affirming the satisfying nature of the situation, breaking up all trains of thought, and producing bodily euphoria) is the socially appropriate response to the stimulus of the ludicrous. Also, it is...

Transsexuality and Transgender in Japan

However, there is now a new movement in the Diet. Some lawmakers have set up a study team to make a new law about changing a transsexual's sex registration. Last year, Kinpachii Sensei, a very popular school television drama, spotlighted an FTM student and a famous professional boat-racer came out as an FTM. These nationwide topics teach us that Japanese have a positive attitude toward transsexuals and transgenders. With these developments, the situation for transsexuals and transgenders in Japan continues to improve. For additional discussion on sex reassignment surgery in Japan, see Ako et al. (2001).

Mental Laws Of Association

Stimulus to be adequate to enhance or increase an individual's liking or positive attitude towards it. In Zajonc's study, pairs of antonyms were examined, and it was found that positively-toned words were more frequent in the language according to word counts than were negatively-toned words (e.g., the English word beauty occurs 41 times more frequently than does the word ugly). In investigations of other non-English languages, Za-jonc also found that there are direct relationships between exposure frequency and rated favorability of words in languages such as German, French, Russian, and Spanish cf., the Pollyanna effect named by the American psychologist Charles E. Osgood (1916-1991) in the 1960s, in honor of the overly-optimistic character Pollyanna Whittier in American writer Eleanor H. Porter's (1868-1920) novels in the early 1900s - refers to a tendency for individuals to pay more attention to positive than negative aspects or conceptual terms in their speech and thoughts, and...

Improving Well Being and Health

It is generally acknowledged that there exists a placebo effect in medical treatments, such that placebos, usually inert substances, are included in most major clinical trials the various constituents of this effect are currently unknown. Conditioning, optimism, improved self-efficacy, and natural regression to the mean are some of the most frequently cited mechanisms, but the role of the patient-provider relationship on outcomes is just beginning to be explored fully as a part of the placebo effect. Compassionate love is one of the components patients report as being important to them being valued, feeling understood, feeling cared for, having a provider that goes beyond mere duty. This attitude of the healthcare provider can encourage the sick person to better adhere to medication regimes, and with a more positive attitude toward themselves, exert better efforts

Experience and Consequences

One of lost love's great powers is that it may allow us to savor indefinitely the fantasy of what might have been. We have only to conjure up the memory of lost love as it is evoked in Casablanca or Gone with the Wind to see how compelling a fantasy this is. The dream of what might have been is a significant one, playing an adaptive or reparative role in our mental lives. Its power and persistence are testimony to its ongoing importance within the lover's psyche. Paradoxically, nostalgic fantasies about what might have been confirm our belief in what could still be, affirming our belief in the possibility of perfect love in the future. They keep alive the hope of realizing old dreams.

Overview Of Intervention Applications

General behavioral target areas common to most caregiving populations include increasing coping skills, problem-solving skills, time management, prosocial and health behaviors, relaxation, assertiveness, and communication skills. Cognitive targets may focus on decreasing mal-adaptive thoughts and beliefs in connection with feelings of depression, anxiety, or guilt, and increasing positive coping and self-efficacy or self-affirming statements. Services may be structured as therapy, support, psychoeducation, respite, self-enhancement, or a combination of these approaches. Interventions may focus on interpersonal (social isolation, competing work, family, and recreational demands) or intrapersonal (finances, emotional and physical well-being, changes in identity or future goals and expectations) variables, preexisting stressors or problems further complicated by the caregiving role, symptom management, and grief and loss issues. Contrary to many theorists' and researchers'

Cognitivebehavioral Therapy Interventions For Anger Problems

Although self-instructions and affirmations of coping skills are not techniques of cognitive restructuring, they are important aspects of self-talk that should be increased as problematic cognitions are decreased as a result of cognitive restructuring. They are also important components of stress inoculation and problem-solving interventions for anger.

Ethics And Denial

First, professional ethics involve acknowledging the reality and importance of the individuals whose lives we affect. Second, they involve understanding the nature of the professional relationship and professional interventions. Third, they involve affirming accountability for our behavior. A moment of active and honest self-assessment can give us at least a general sense of how well we are accomplishing these tasks.

Nimal Senanayake

After a long circuit through ages of magic, black humours, and blank disinterest, medical thought has returned to the affirmation that epilepsy, like many other diseases, is rooted in natural causes. In terms of today, epilepsy is not cryptogenic, born of ignorance, but is merely a disturbance of the normal rhythm of the brain. In nature, rhythm is inherent in man, dysrhythmia means disease in brain, paroxysmal dysrhythmia spells epilepsy.7

Back to the Future

For instance, in Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the Supreme Court divided over whether Roe should be overruled. Speaking jointly for the Court, the plurality of Justices Souter, O'Connor, and Kennedy stated that there are moments when the Court best fulfills its constitutional duty by repudiating earlier lines of cases In constitutional adjudication as elsewhere in life, changed circumstances may impose new obligations, and the thoughtful part of the Nation could accept each decision to overrule a prior case as a response to the Court's constitutional duty. According to the plurality, this should occur when the Court would have to pay a terrible price for a failure to act, as was the case in both West Coast Hotel and Brown. However, cautioning that each generation must learn anew that the Constitution's written terms embody ideas and aspirations that must survive more ages than one, the judges maintained that Roe not only did not warrant overruling but that its repudiation would...

Moore John Howard

John Howard Moore (1862-1916) was a Chicago schoolteacher whose work The Universal Kinship (1906) was lauded by Henry Salt* as one of the most important humanitarian titles of its era. This work alone distinguishes Moore as perhaps the first organic American intellectual in the realm of animal rights.* It was through Moore's intercession that his brother-in-law, Clarence Darrow, became a supporting member of the Humanitarian League. Moore contributed articles and essays to numerous humane and vegetarian (see VEGETARIANISM) publications. He was also the author of Better World Philosophy (1899), The New Ethics (1907), and Savage Survivals (1916). Moore's work was marked by the conviction that the science of evolution provided an affirmation of the humane ethic.


There is no simple, one-to-one relationship between impairments of elements of the language code or of psycholinguistic processors, on the one hand, and abnormalities in performing language-related tasks and accomplishing the goals of language use, on the other hand. Most patients who have disturbances of elements of the language code or psycholinguistic processors experience limitations in their functional communicative abilities. However, individuals with language processing disorders adapt to their language impairments in many ways, and some of these adaptations are remarkably effective at maintaining at least some aspects of functional communication. Time, rehabilitation, support, and a positive attitude can allow many aphasic patients to be productive and happy.

James W Lomax

Which occurs if this vulnerability is not recognized and taken into account in constructing educational experiences. There are parallels between being a learner of psychotherapy and being a patient in psychotherapy Psychotherapy educational programs must strike a balance between treating its learners as mature adults mastering the elements of a respected profession, while also providing a safe enough environment for students experiencing disturbances of their internal sense of themselves preceding the development of confidence and affirmation arising from the mastery of a profession.

Muscles and Liking

A more robust procedure was employed in another, clever study of a more conventional movement, head nodding and shaking (Wells & Petty, 1980). Participants in this study were told that the study concerned the performance of earphones during activity. Under this ruse they were asked to either nod affirmatively or shake their heads negatively while listening to a radio program, which was in fact a persuasive communication. They agreed more with the content they heard while nodding than with the content they heard while shaking their heads. They also seemed to have greater difficulty performing the nods and shakes if the material they were listening to was inconsistent with their attitudes. In a similar procedure, Foerster and Strack (1996) also found an interaction between the participants' evaluations and their head nodding or shaking. When participants were learning positive words while shaking their heads, or negative words while nodding, there was greater interference with a...

Human dignity

This term also is surfacing more frequently in important bioethical and other public documents. It has played a role in the constitutions of a politically diverse array of countries, including Afghanistan, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, the former Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Ireland, Italy, Nicaragua, Peru, Portugal, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey. In some of those countries, such as Germany, the role of human dignity is substantial. Affirming that the dignity of the human being is inviolable, the German constitution recognizes various human rights that the law must respect. Even in countries where the term has not been influential in constitutional language, it has come to play an important role. For example, the U.S. Supreme Court has employed the term in its deliberations over the meaning of the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution.


Metamorphoses from animal to human are rare in modern literature and in Western literature in general, except where the animal was a human being to begin with. Franz Kafka wrote the most famous modern story about metamorphosis, The Metamorphosis, which describes the fortunes of Gregor Samsa after he is transformed in his bed into a gigantic insect.'' Kafka also wrote ''A Report to an Academy'' (1917), in which an ape describes to a group of scientists how he ''became'' human by learning a few simple tricks such as drinking schnapps, smoking cigars, and speaking human language. In John Collier's His Monkey Wife (1930), a chimpanzee* receives affirmation of her ''humanity'' after she has cunningly supplanted a man's fianceie and at last won his love.

Family Variables

Assuming other individuals or organizations are not raising them, high-risk children have the unique experience of being reared by a schizophrenic parent (or parents). As a result, family factors have been a source of interest, especially in high-risk studies. In a small retrospective study of adult children (n 9) with a psychotic mother, themes of abuse and neglect, isolation, guilt and loyalty conflicts, dissatisfaction with mental health services, and efforts to seek social supports emerged 72 . Dunn also noted that many of these children were quite resilient ''As children, study participants described consciously overcoming feelings of shyness, feelings of being different from others, and fear of reprisal from their mother in order to put themselves in safe and affirming situations with peers or adults'' 72 . In the New York High-risk Project, Erlenmeyer-Kimling and Cornblatt 40 noted several variables related to resilience, including a good parent-child relationship, good peer...

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