After Birth Ebook

Getting Back Into Shape After The Pregnancy

Getting Back Into Shape After The Pregnancy

Once your pregnancy is over and done with, your baby is happily in your arms, and youre headed back home from the hospital, youll begin to realize that things have only just begun. Over the next few days, weeks, and months, youre going to increasingly notice that your entire life has changed in more ways than you could ever imagine.

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Pregnancy Without Pounds

This proven program will get you through your pregnancy in better shape than most other women in as little as 27 minutes a day and with minimal effort. It contains all the information that I believe will Help you to look and feel like I did barefoot and beautiful! Inside you will learn Exactly how to avoid unwanted pounds, overcome your food cravings, care for your skin, dress to kill and look like one Hot Mama. Ive also put together Fifty simple, yet extremely effective pregnancy-friendly exercises and stretches to keep you and your body looking and feeling Great (includes 3 different fitness programs depending on Your fitness level)!

Pregnancy Without Pounds Summary


4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Michelle Moss
Price: $39.95

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Highly Recommended

All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable pdf so that purchasers of Pregnancy Without Pounds can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

When compared to other e-books and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

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Gender over the Life Cycle

The cultural names for stages in the life cycle are neutral Neugeborenes (new born) up to the 10th day after birth, the neutral S ugling (baby) for children up to the 12th month of life, the neutral Kleinkind (toddler) or Spielkind (playing child) from age 2 to 5, the neutral Schulkind (schoolchild) or Schulm dchen (schoolgirl) and Schuljunge (schoolboy) from age 6 to 14, Jugendliche (female young person) and Jugendlicher (male young person) (also Teenager ) up to majority at 18, Erwachsene or Frau (female adult or woman) and Erwachsener or Mann (male adult or man), Greisin or Seniorin (very old woman), and Greis or Senior (very old man).

Atpase Chromatinremodeling Complexes

The diversity of chromatin-remodeling complexes is likely to be even greater than is currently realized. Numerous SWI2 SNF2-related genes have been identified by reduced stringency hybridization or genome sequencing projects, and some of these genes probably encode orphan catalytic sub-units of complexes that await identification and purification. Some of these putative catalytic subunits have interesting properties, such as the ability to regulate DNA methylation. A targeted mutation of Lsh (lymphoid specific helicase) results in a 50 to 70 reduction in cytosine methylation throughout the genome. Homozygotes die shortly after birth, possibly because of renal failure. (The gene is lymphoid-specific in adults but widely expressed in embryos.) Interestingly, expression and activity of de novo and maintenance DNA methyltransferases are unaffected. Instead, Lshl is expressed during S phase and may facilitate localization of Dnmtl to hemimethylated DNA following replication or protect...

[2 Phenotype Changes of Fut8 Knockout Mouse Core Fucosylation Is Crucial for the Function of Growth Factor Receptors

Core Fucosylation

Semilethality and growth retardation in Fut8 ' mice. (A) Survival ratio of Fut8 ' (- -, striped bar), Fut8+ (+ -, gray bar) mice after birth. (B) A 16-day-old Fut8 ' pup (- -) with a Fut8+ + litter mate (+ +). Fig. 2. Semilethality and growth retardation in Fut8 ' mice. (A) Survival ratio of Fut8 ' (- -, striped bar), Fut8+ (+ -, gray bar) mice after birth. (B) A 16-day-old Fut8 ' pup (- -) with a Fut8+ + litter mate (+ +).

Mouse Models and the DNA Sequence

One of the most notable new advances in research about Down syndrome is the recent production and characterization of mouse models trisomic for significant regions of mouse chromosomes that are homologous to human chromosome 21 (Davisson and Costa, 1999). The genes on human chromosome 21 are found on three mouse chromosomes, 16, 17, and 10. So far, the order of genes in the mouse is the same as the order in the human. This conservation of chromosomal regions has led to attempts to produce mice trisomic for the parts of mouse chromosomes 16, 17, and 10 that are homologous to human chromosome 21. The first of these, trisomy 16 (Ts16) in the mouse, leads to lethality during embryogenesis or shortly after birth. Even so, during embryonic development, these mice show anatomic features that

Variability in Weight Gain

The BMI-specific target ranges for pregnancy weight gain are relatively narrow, but a very wide range of gain actually occurs. In a California study, for example, only 50 of the mothers who had an uncomplicated pregnancy with a normal birth-weight infant gained the recommended 12.5-18 kg, with the remainder gaining more or less. Since a substantial amount of the variation in weight gain is due to physiological variability and prepregnancy BMI, deviation from the recommended range may not necessarily be cause for concern. However, it is especially important to assess the dietary patterns and other behaviors of women whose weight gain is unexpectedly high or low. The IOM Implementation Guide for weight gain recommendations provides helpful information on the assessments that should be used.

Changes in Body Composition and Maternal Energy Status

The weight gained during pregnancy can be roughly divided into the weight of the fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid (a total of approximately 5 kg), maternal gain in the uterus, breasts, blood, and fluid (approximately 4 kg), and maternal fat. The latter component is the most variable, accounting for approximately 70 of the variability in pregnancy weight gain. Although average fat gain in different studies is approximately 2-5 kg, values for individual women range from a loss of several kilograms to a gain of approximately 12 kg. Even in a group of women with normal BMIs at conception, the range of fat gain was 0.5-9.5 kg. Fatter women at conception gained less fat during pregnancy, as would be expected from their lower weight gains. The greater fat gain of thinner women is a potential energy store for the fetus and would afford some protection against maternal malnutrition in late pregnancy a situation that is not uncommon in some economically disadvantaged countries.

Cultural Construction of Gender

The first gender markers are in place shortly after birth. Within 3-5 months most girls have their ears pierced and are given small earrings, preferably of gold. Then the child's gender is underlined by the personal name chosen for him or her. As late as in the 1970s the tooth-filing ritual (balibang) was practiced on Timpaus. The ritual was a public and collective village event arranged for both girls and boys. The novices' gender was underlined by the traditional costumes that the children wore. The ritual lasted for 7 days and 7 nights. Food was

Parental and Other Caretaker Roles

Until changes in the late 20th century, once a Yapese woman became pregnant, both mother and father were required to adhere to a number of taboos that included restrictions on eating certain foods and coitus. Following the birth of a child, the mother and baby would spend approximately 100 days in the menstrual house, which provided young girls with an opportunity to learn more about birthing and caring for a newborn. After childbirth, a number of restrictions, lasting for about a year, fell upon the new mother. These restrictions were lifted once a malekagtir, visit to father's sister's home, took place. It was the father's sister who publicly announced a child's name for the first time and who also oversaw the first haircut. Once named, the child was considered a full member of the estate. Infants have always been treasured in Yap, seldom suffering from lack of attention. Restrictions on children's behavior in Yap is minimal, but when it is necessary, the role of primary...

Components of Parenteral Nutrition

Preterm infants often require more glucose than the term infant secondary to the higher brain to body weight ratio and the need for additional energy for central nervous system energy requirements. Measurements of glucose utilization in the preterm infant range from 6 to 10 mgkg 1 min 1 .033-0.055 mmol kg 1 min 1). Glycogen stores are very limited in the preterm infant therefore, it requires a large and continuous source of glucose. This should be initiated at a rate of 6mgkg_1 min 1 (0.033 mmol kg 1 min 1) and can be advanced 1-2 mg kg 1 min 1 (0.0055-0.011 mmol kg 1 min 1) each day to an optimum of 12-14 mg kg 1 min 1 (0.066-0.78 mmol kg 1 min 1) as long as the infant does not become hyperglycemic. Above this rate, glucose is not used for energy but rather fat deposition. This is an inefficient process that can result in increased energy expenditure and carbon dioxide production.

Evolving Concepts of Regeneration

Stem Cells For Acne Scars

The limited restorative capacity of the adult mammalian heart has been attributed to the loss of cardiomyocyte versatility soon after birth. Emerging concepts of regeneration as an evolutionary variable are dramatically illustrated by the relatively robust proliferative capacity of the injured heart in other vertebrate species. The dramatic regeneration of urodele amphibian limb and lens extends to their robust repair of injured myocardium. Unlike their mammalian counterparts, adult

Mohair Biology and Characteristics

Skin Image Microscope Micron

Mohair fibers are produced by cell division in primary (P) and secondary (S) follicles in the skin of Angora goats (Fig. 1). The two types of follicles are distinguished by their accessory structures. The P follicles each have a sebaceous gland, a sudoriferous (sweat) gland, and an arrector pili muscle. The S follicles have only a sebaceous gland. Some S follicles produce more than one fiber. The central P follicles are first observed on the fetal head about 40 days into pregnancy and spread across the body over the next 20 days. During this time, two more P follicles (laterals) appear on either side of the central P follicle, thus forming a trio group. After 80 days of pregnancy, S follicles associated with each trio group begin to emerge, forming a follicle group. At birth (day 149), all P follicles are fully formed and are actively producing fiber, whereas only a small but quite variable proportion of the S follicles are producing fibers. Twelve weeks after birth, most of the...

The Axonal Myelin Sheath

As cells that myelinate CNS axons, oligodendro-cytes line up along axons in tracts or diffuse white matter as interfascicular glia. In human fetal and postnatal development, tracts are myelinated and thus become fully functional at different times. Motor nerve roots are well-myelinated by birth, but optic nerves and sensory roots lag behind until the 3rd and 4th months after birth, respectively. The corticospinal tracts require 1 year to achieve full myelination, whereas cerebral commissural fibers requuire up to 10 years. This staggered ensheathment has important functional correlates for the developing individual when she or he can move, see, begin to walk, perform directed movements, and so on. One intracortical plexus is not completely myelinated until middle age the stripe of Kaes-Bechterew in layer IIIa (Fig. 8, right panel). Neuropathologist Paul Yakovlev called it ''the wisdom stripe.''

Determining Viability

Delivery of premature infants who are at the limits of viability is not an uncommon occurrence in the emergency department. Under these circumstances, the first priority of the physician caring for the infant is to determine whether resuscitation is justified. An infant born at a gestational age of less than 24 weeks, weighing less than 500 g, who has gelatinous skin and fused eyes should not, except under unusual circumstances, be resuscitated. By contrast, infants born at greater than 24 weeks are likely to have a relatively good outcome and should be supported aggressively after birth. The decision to initiate support must be made immediately. If the decision is not clear, proceed with resuscitation.

Physiological Cross Species and Evolutionary Perspective

Two hormones are involved in breast-feeding prolactin, which promotes milk production, and oxytocin, which enables the milk to move from the mammary glands into the infant's mouth. When an infant suckles, a signal is sent from the breast to the pituitary gland, which, in turn, stimulates the release of prolactin and oxytocin. Oxytocin is also involved in uterine repair after birth and in suppression of ovulation during the period of intense nursing, thus delaying the start of another pregnancy. Certainly the most important contribution of breastfeeding is nutritional, but breast milk also contains antibodies from the mother that protect the nursing infant from a number of pathogens to which it is exposed in the first few weeks of life. Also, as noted above, highly frequent nursing, especially when coupled with low caloric intake in the mother, usually leads to inhibition of ovulation in the first few months of nursing (Ellison, 2001). A longer birth interval is associated with lower...

Brain Lipids during Development

Days after birth in the pig brain, and during the first 8 or 9 months after birth in the human brain (Fig. 4). Moreover, the cells that multiply just before the peak cholesterol synthesis are almost all oligodendroglia, the cells that form myelin around the central neuronal axons. The same sequence of cell (oligodendroglial) multiplication and peak cholesterol accumulation is also seen in the brain of nonmammalian species such as the catfish. Gangliosides are most concentrated in the brain compared to the rest of the body. Within the brain, the concentration in the gray matter is several times higher than that in white matter. Within the gray matter, these lipids are most concentrated in the axon terminals and dendrites, the structures that constitute most of the synaptic interconnections. As mentioned previously, gangliosides are thus considered label lipids for synaptogenesis. Based on ganglioside measurement, it has been shown that the period of most rapid synaptogenesis in the...

Initiation and Maintenance of Breast Feeding

As noted above, breast-feeding a child is a somewhat predictable part of the life course for most women. That does not mean that initiation of nursing is routine and easy. Most populations also have cultural rules that women must follow during pregnancy to prepare for and ensure successful breast-feeding. These may include specific foods to eat or avoid, the wearing of special clothing and amulets, and other prescribed or restricted behaviors. Following birth, cultural practices relating to breast-feeding a child may include avoiding sexual relations, food restrictions, and performing ritual acts. Dana Raphael describes the tradition of the doula, a family member or friend whose primary role is to assist a new mother in breast-feeding her child (Raphael, 1973). Although the word itself is Greek and describes a person who assists women after childbirth ( mothering the mother ), the practice is found throughout the world, evidence that breast-feeding is not something that comes easily...

Normal Physiology and Function

In the CNS, oligodendrocytes are responsible for the synthesis and maintenance of the myelin that surrounds the axons of neighboring neurons. The purpose of the myelin sheath is to allow saltatory propagation of nerve impulses along the length of the axon, resulting in a faster and more efficient neural impulse than in uninsulated nerve fibers. The exact cellular mechanisms responsible for the process of myelination are unclear. In humans, oligodendrocytes emerge several days or weeks before they actually start to synthesize myelin, and myelination takes place principally within the first year after birth. Recent studies have shown that initiation of myelination may be partially dependent on the activity of protein kinase C (PKC), a family of phospholipid-dependent enzymes ubiquitously present in the CNS. Not only do myelin-associated proteins appear to be excellent substrates for PKC-mediated phosphorylation but PKC activity also increases gradually after birth, coinciding with the...

Pancreatic Stem Cells

Pancreas Duct Cell Marker

After birth, the growth of the pancreas continues but slows significantly around 1 month of age in the mouse and rat. However, even in old animals there is a measurable rate of cell birth in all pancreatic compartments. In the b-cell compartment, where most studies have been done, the replication rate falls from 5 in 4-week-old animals to 0.1 in mice older than 3 months. Embryonic-type progenitors (based on expression patterns) are not seen in the normal adult animal (with the possible exception of rare islet cells generated from neurogenin3+ progenitors). The most comprehensive effort in this direction was carried out by Finegood et al., who studied b-cell dynamics throughout the lifespan of the rat. Their results imply a significant contribution of progenitor cells to the b-cell mass in the first weeks after birth and then a shift to tissue maintenance by slow replication of b-cells. In addition, significant b-cell neogenesis was deduced in a similar...

The US Human Embryo Research Panel

In developing its position and recommendations, the panel focused on two distinct sources of guidance viewpoints on the moral status of the early human embryo, and ethical standards governing research involving human subjects. It considered a wide range of possible views on the moral status of the embryo, from the position that full human personhood is attained at fertilization, to the argument that personhood requires self-consciousness and is not attained until after birth. In the end, all nineteen members of the panel agreed to the following statement

Other possible models in the evolution of heart diseases and limitations of the studies

In Europe there are more than 20 large longitudinal studies in which the main focus has been or is to study prenatal or early life factors in relation to adult disease risk. Many of them are historical cohort studies, or data collection has started after birth retrospectively at various points of life. The most important historical cohort studies, from the point of view of the fetal origin hypothesis, are the Hertfordshire,4 14 Preston,12 21 and Sheffield8 studies, as well as the Helsinki27 and Uppsala28 cohort studies.

Gender Assignment of Newborns and Children

The gender assignment of John Joan has received a great deal of attention (Colapinto, 1997). In 1966 a physician burned the penis of boy beyond repair during a circumcision that involved an electrocautery needle. Fearful of what the boy's life would be like, his parents took him Johns Hopkins University for evaluation. The psychologist John Money proposed gender reassignment from male to female on the assumption that the loss of the penis was so damaging that it would be better for the child to be raised as female he also believed that gender identity can be shaped after birth. With the consent of the parents, in 1967 physicians removed the boy's testicles at the age of 22 months, repositioned the urethra, and induced a preliminary vaginal cleft. The parents selected a girl's name and began to treat and raise the child as female (Colapinto, 2000). Some commentators believe that that failure provides evidence that gender assignments do not work, but that conclusion is not fully...

Medicinal Hygiene And Wound Infection

It was not until the mid to late 1800s that even the most basic practices of hygiene were applied to medical procedures. In a Paris hospital between 1861 and 1864,1226 of 9886 pregnant women died a few days after childbirth. The deaths were attributed to puerperal fever. The situation was similar the world over. In Boston in 1843, Oliver Wendall Holmes taught that germs on physicians' and midwives' hands caused puerperal fever (4). Other doctors largely dismissed his ideas. Ignaz Semmelweiss taught the same hygienic concepts in Vienna (11). He realized the dangers of many of the current practices including that of medical students performing post mortem dissections and then assisting in childbirth without so much as breaking to wash their hands. He instituted a strict rule requiring doctors, midwives, and medical students to hand wash in a chloride of lime solution prior to examining expectant women. Mortality fell from 18 to 1 . In 1861 he published The Cause and Prevention of...

Diseases of Carbohydrate Metabolism

Glucose and galactose malabsorption Carbohydrate intolerance is a hereditary disorder that occurs infrequently and poses serious health risks. This disorder is caused by a deficiency in a digestive enzyme (e.g., sucrase-a-dextrinase) and defective glucose-galactose transport. Carbohydrate intolerance presents as the development of profuse infant diarrhoea immediately after birth. Gestational diabetes GDM is a form of glucose intolerance that is diagnosed in some pregnant women. It is usually ameliorated after childbirth, but it increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future.

Marriage Also called bride wealth bridewealth or bride wealth See bride price

In many cases, the subsequent homozygote is inviable. colonialism. The control by one nation of a territory or people the controlled territory may be referred to as a colony. colostrum. A substance secreted from the breasts of human females for the first two or three days following birth. Although colostrum is not nutrient dense, it provides antibodies and other properties that enhance infant health during a particularly vulnerable period after birth.

Postulated Mechanisms of Reorganization of Function

It has been proposed that the takeover of muscle fibers when motor neuron loss occurs, such as in polio, may occur through vestigial pathways since in the embryonic stage the muscle fibers are polyneuronally innervated. Although all connections except those from one motor neuron disappear shortly after birth, vestigial remains of the polyneuronal pathways could conceivably serve as tracks for the growth of pathways from surviving motoneurons to the muscle fibers denervated by the motoneuron loss. If such pathways could be demonstrated in the nerve-muscle fiber preparation (which has served very well as a model of central nervous system nerve-cell connectivity), it would be interesting to consider the implications for central nervous system repair mechanisms. In particular, reactive synaptogenesis would have to be considered in the context of the reestablishment of connections that had existed during an early stage of brain development.

Eye Discharge Redness and Conjunctivitis

An important consideration in the evaluation of neonatal conjunctivitis is the time of onset. Chemical conjunctivitis secondary to ocular prophylaxis usually occurs on the first day of life. Gonococcal conjunctivitis generally has its peak time of onset between 3 and 5 days after birth. By the end of first week of life and throughout the first month of life, Chlamydia becomes the most frequent cause of conjunctivitis. It is important to note that these times of onset assume rupture of amniotic membrane at or near the time of delivery. The conjunctiva can be inoculated before birth by an ascending bacterial infection.

Characteristics in the First Years and Clinical Onset

Despite the almost complete consensus that autism is a disorder with a biological onset prenatally or shortly after birth, behavioral indicators during the first 2 years of life are elusive. Difficulties in developing a clinical profile of autism at such young ages are due to the fact that most children do not receive a diagnosis until age 2-4 therefore, reliable early indicators may be missed. Some information, however, has been made available based on retrospective analyses of home videos taken of children before the diagnosis of autism has been made. Such retrospective videotaped studies have demonstrated that autism can be distinguished from normal at least as early as 1 year based on differences in social behaviors, such as looking at the face of another or orienting in response to his or her name, and in joint attention behaviors, such as pointing, showing objects to others, and alternating gaze between object and person. Given that these types of social and joint attention...

Hereditary noninflammatory myopathies

In young and adult cats with HFMD, serum CK activity remains markedly increased. However, serum CK concentrations do not allow a differentiation between dystrophin-deficient kittens and their healthy littermates at birth. The CK values progressively increase in the weeks after birth. Serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are also increased.

Is It Just Nephron Number Thats Important

Arguments against the Brenner hypothesis primarily come from human and animal experiences where removal of a kidney from an adult, thereby halving the nephron number, does not generally result in hypertension. Long term follow up studies of patients who have had a kidney removed due to a tumour or donated a kidney for transplantation have not shown an increased incidence of hypertension.25 Other studies in the rat where the glucocorticoid treatment occurred earlier in gestation also show that hypertension can result without changes in nephron number21 whilst the offspring of the WKY rat do not develop high blood pressure after maternal exposure to a low protein diet.26 It is very interesting however, that unilateral nephrectomy during the period of nephrogenesis in the rat (at postnatal dayl) or the sheep (at 100 days out of the 150 gestation) results in offspring with elevated blood pressure and compromised renal function. 7'28 In the case of the sheep, this resulted in some...

Repertoire expression in B cell subpopulations

Since B1 cells represent a sizable portion of neonatal splenic B cells, and fetal neonatal-derived B cells have been shown to lack non-templated nucleo tide (N) region additions found at the VDJ junctions, it was thought that all B1 cells lacked N additions. This restriction in repertoire size has been attributed to terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, TdT, the enzyme which adds N nucleotides and becomes active during the first week after birth. A comparison of heavy chain sequences from B1 cells isolated at different stages of development revealed some N additions in the B1 cells of the adult population. The increased N-region diversity is found in the 'sister' population of B1 cells.

Trace Elements Copper Selenium Chromium Fluoride Manganese and Molybdenum

Manganese is required for bone formation and the normal metabolism of amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. The AI for pregnancy, estimated from the manganese content of maternal weight gain, is 2 mg day. The UL is based on avoidance of elevated blood manganese and neurotoxicity, and it is not increased for pregnancy.

Practical applications of internal image idiotypes

Important information regarding the stimulatory aspect of anti-Id antibodies was provided by Hier-naux and colleagues, who showed that the injection of minute amounts of anti-Id antibodies after birth can expand silent clones. Knowledge of the expansion of silent clones was important for an understanding of the effect of anti-Id in tumor therapy.

Congenital heart disease

Intrauterine pulmonary vascular disease is unusual, and the disease generally starts at birth.12 The rate of change depends on the type of intracardiac abnormality, but some exceptional children appear to be genetically predisposed to develop an accelerated form of the disease. Endothelial cell damage, medial smooth muscle cell hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and site specific changes in cell phenotype are well described in early infancy12 (fig 22.2). Respiratory unit arteries, about half of which normally form after birth, are reduced in size and number. This is the morphological substrate of pulmonary hypertensive crises, which most often occur in the presence of potentially reversible structural abnormalities. Endothelial dysfunction is present early. In potentially operable children the relaxation response to acetylcholine is impaired, basal NO production may be raised initially but then decreases, and the ratio of thromboxane to prostacyclin is raised, tipping the balance in favour of...

Control Of Testicular Function

The bulk of testosterone synthesis takes place. LH restores them to normal and can produce frank hypertrophy if given in excess. Leydig cells, which are abundant in newborn baby boys, regress and die shortly after birth. Secretion of LH at the onset of puberty causes dormant Leydig cell precursors to proliferate and differentiate into mature steroidogenic cells. In the fetus, growth and development of Leydig cells depend initially on the placental hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, which is present in high concentrations and which stimulates LH receptors, and later on LH secreted by the fetal pituitary gland.

Physiologic Effects Of Thyroid Hormones

The importance of the thyroid hormones for normal development of the nervous system is well established. Thyroid hormones and their receptors are present early in the development of the fetal brain, well before the fetal thyroid gland becomes functional. T4 and T3 present in the fetal brain at this time probably arise in the mother and readily cross the placenta to the fetus. Some evidence suggests that maternal hypothyroidism may lead to deficiencies in postnatal neural development, but direct effects of thyroid deficiency on the fetal brain have not been established. However, failure of thyroid gland development in babies born to mothers with normal thyroid function have normal brain development if properly treated with thyroid hormones after birth. Maturation of the nervous system during the perinatal period has an absolute dependence on thyroid hormone. During this critical period thyroid hormone must be present for normal development of the brain. In rats made hypothyroid at...

Structural organization of the mucosal immune system

It has been estimated that about 10 of lymphoid cells in humans are associated with the organized lymphoid structures of the gastrointestinal tract. Peyer's patches are located throughout the jejunum and ileum of humans, being most concentrated in the terminal ileum. Lymphoid aggregates are also found in the colon, particularly in the rectum, however they differ from the typical small bowel aggregates in having relatively few activated B cell germinal centers. Peyer's patches and lymphoid aggregates are well developed in fetal life, but germinal centers do not appear until after birth, presumably due to the initiation of stimulation from food antigens and bacteria. This is supported by the observation that germ-free animals do not develop germinal centers. The number of Peyer's patches increases to about 250

Individual Variation In Laterality

Handedness is of particular interest because it is a behavioral manifestation of brain laterality for certain manual activities and it is also related to other, more cognitive aspects of laterality. Hand dominance is determined by a variety of genetic and environmental factors, both before and after birth. The direction and magnitude of hand dominance may even be determined by different factors, with the magnitude being more heritable and with the direction being more subject to environmental influence. Environmental influences include pre- and postnatal trauma, prenatal levels of testosterone and other hormones (higher prenatal levels of testosterone are associated with greater incidence of left-handedness), asymmetric positioning of the fetus in utero, as well as the biases of the postnatal world. As noted previously handed-ness is at least moderately related to other forms of laterality. On average, laterality for a group of left-handed individuals is in the same direction as that...

Cooperation Mechanisms Of Cellular

Proliferation defects and multiorgan destruction. This lymphoproliferation in CD152_ mice appears to be antigen driven. An accumulation of lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs is noticeable about 1 week after birth. By 4 weeks, the number of lymphocytes in these organs is up to five times the number found in wild-type controls. Also by this time, most organs are infiltrated by lymphocytes. These observations, taken together, suggest that CD152 plays a critical role in the regulation of autoreactive T cells, as well as in the downregulation of activated T cells.

The role of all the senses in flavour perception

Common areas of the brain (Cerf-Ducastel and Murphy 2001). One issue that has been studied in some depth in recent years is the multisensory link between the texture of food in our mouths and our perception of flavour strength. It has been known for some time that as the viscosity of liquid foods and drinks increases the apparent strength of the flavour diminishes (Baines and Morris 1989). This was first explained by the proposal that a more viscous product would release fewer volatile molecules for detection by the nose than would be the case for a less viscous system. This has now been shown to be untrue and the development of the real-time dynamic monitoring of flavour release from foods (Taylor, Linforth et al. 2000) has clearly demonstrated that viscosity has little or no effect on the transfer of volatiles from food to the breath and that other mechanisms are responsible for this phenomenon (Hollowood, Linforth et al. 2000). The group of Professor Andrew Taylor at the University...

Birth Related Hemorrhages

Birth-related retinal hemorrhages are extremely common but usually are not seen or documented because nobody looks for them. They are not seen on family photographs. The RetCam (a wide-angle contact eye fundus camera) was used in a prospective study (revised manuscript submitted to J American Association Pediatric Opthalmology and Strabismus Hughes et al. Incidence, distribution and duration of birth-related retinal hemorrhages a prospective study. ) of retinal hemorrhages in neonates (in our hands RetCam is safe and very easy to use in unsedated neonates, and it is well tolerated by the parents watching or holding the infant). In 50 full-term normal neonates, retinal hemorrhages were very common (32 overall) and often were extensive (Figure 4.14). Their incidence in normal vaginal deliveries was 33 , ventouse deliveries 88 , forceps deliveries 14 , and cesarean sections 7 . The hemorrhages can be unilateral or bilateral, and are intraretinal. Most resolved very rapidly (in a few days...

Diabetes in Pregnancy

Gestational diabetes occurs only during pregnancy and usually resolves after pregnancy. It occurs in 5-10 of pregnancies and most commonly arises after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational diabetes can be treated largely through nutritional care and moderate exercise to achieve weight control. Nutritional recommendations are to limit protein intake to 15 of total calories, consume 55 of total calories as carbohydrate, and limit fat intake to 30 or less of total calories. Cholesterol intake should be 300mg day or less, simple carbohydrate intake should be limited, and sodium intake should not exceed 1000mg 1000kcal. Insulin is rarely needed, although blood glucose levels should be monitored daily.

Infant Attachment Theories

The English psychiatrist John Bowlby (19071990) introduced the term attachment into psychology and psychiatry, even though Sigmund Freud laid the foundation for theoretical attachment concepts by suggesting the cathexis (i.e., an investment or holding ) of libidinal energy onto a love object in order to establish an emotional connection for behavioral stability and organization. Bowlby argued that attachment is an expression of the biology of a species that is exhibited by species-specific behaviors (such as sucking, crying, smiling, clinging, and following responses) that occur at different ages and are focused on the infant's mother. Theories of infant attachment have appeared as subtheo-ries and supporting concepts in ethological theory, psychoanalytic theory, and learning theory. In the area of ethology (the study of animal behavior), lasting attachments are created via the imprinting phenomenon or process whereby a newborn organism attaches itself to the first moving object,...

Dairy products and probiotics in childhood disease

The age of two years (46 versus 23 ) (Kalliomaki et al., 2001b). However, there was no decrease in antigen-specific IgE by L. rhamnosus GG administration. The authors performed a four-year follow up of the study group. Sixty-seven percent of the initially randomised children were reexamined. In the probiotic supplemented population there was a significantly decreased prevalence of atopic eczema compared with the non-treated group (14 of 53 versus 25 of 54 children) (Kalliomaki et al., 2003). No difference was found upon skin prick test reactivity. Another long-term follow up study was able to shown that intentional colonisation of the intestine with E. coli 083 (K24LH31) after birth decreased the incidence of allergies after 10 and 20 years after colonisation (Lodinova-Zadnikova et al., 2003).

Energy Metabolism Of The Developing Brain

Much like the changes in lipid and protein compositions described earlier, energy metabolism of the brain also undergoes an interesting shift during development. The most dramatic of these changes are changes in blood flow and oxygen consumption and the utilization of glucose as the source of energy. It is well-known from both in vitro and in vivo studies that oxygen consumption by the cerebrum remains at a low level at birth, although oxygen supply to the tissue may be high. Investigations show that relative to the amount of oxygen consumed, the amount of oxygen delivered to the cerebrum during fetal life exceeds that in the newborn and adult by as much as 70 . This may protect the fetus from the stress of labor and delivery, or it may simply be an obligatory adaptation to the low arterial oxygen pressure in the intrauterine environment. After birth, both oxygen supply and oxygen consumption increase rapidly and reach maximum levels at the time of peak development. Oxygen consumption...

B cell deficiency diseases

The physiological importance of B cell function is revealed by diseases that result from selective B cell deficiencies and consequent lack of antibodies (agammaglobulinemia). Bruton's agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is an X-linked defect in B cell maturation in humans, with arrest at the Pre-B I stage and a resulting deficiency in all immunoglobulin classes. A corresponding B cell maturation defect, the Xid mutation, also occurs in CBA N mice. In male children with XLA, the maturation block results from deficiency of a B cell-specific protein tyrosine kinase, btk. With a profound lack of mature B cells but normal T cells, these children are particularly susceptible to infections by bacteria, mycoplasma, hepatitis virus and enteroviruses. They have recurrent middle ear infection, pneumonia, sinusitis and tonsillitis caused by Pneumococcus, Streptococcous and Hemophilus. Problems with infection begin several months after birth, when the pool of protective maternal antibody decreases. XLA...

Evolution Of Laterality

We have seen that homologous areas of the two hemispheres may mature at different rates. It seems likely that the consequences of such maturational gradients would be greater to the extent that the brain undergoes less of its development in the impoverished uterine environment and more of its development postnatally, especially because the sensorimotor capacities ofnewborns change dramatically during the first few days, weeks, and months after birth.

Past and Personal History

Relevant past history should concern enquiry about the progress of mother's pregnancy, the circumstances at birth, psychomotor development, diseases during infancy and childhood, neurological sequel consequent to these diseases, and the time interval before the appearance of the symptoms. The place and the conditions during birth should be documented. The psychomotor development must be evaluated according to age specific milestones including but not limiting to sitting, walking, talking etc. A developmental abnormality is probably a sign of central nervous system (CNS) disease. In developing countries obstetrical trauma and perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain insults are frequent. Multiparity, prematurity, malnutrition, anemia, lack of hygiene and neonatal infections are highly prevalent and may result in many types of cerebral lesions that could result in seizure disorder in later life.19 Of the 1374 patients with epilepsy studied in the community in 9 African countries, mother's...

Brain Reorganization

Rehabilitation and the developmental learning process have some aspects in common. Both include important elements of inhibition in regard to selective function and precisely coordinated movements. For example, a child learning to write initially demonstrates electromyographic activity in virtually all the muscles related to the hand. As ability increases, muscle activity decreases progressively until there is a minimum of activity, which is coordinated precisely to produce just the muscle action necessary for writing. It then becomes virtually fatigue-free. Following brain damage, coordinated movements are often disturbed. Patients become fatigued when attempting controlled movements rehabilitation is then oriented toward the restoration of precise, fatigue-free movements. Comparably, reflexes that are normal shortly after birth (e.g., Babinski's) are inhibited during maturation and

Laterality Across The Life Span

During the course of fetal development in humans, certain areas of the right hemisphere seem to develop earlier than homologous areas of the left hemisphere. Various possibilities have been suggested as to the manner in which certain functional asymmetries could arise from the interaction of these maturational asymmetries and changes in the nature of environmental stimulation. One promising idea is that the earlier developing right hemisphere is initially more influenced than the lagging left hemisphere by the impoverished information that the developing brain encounters. This might include nonlinguistic intrau-terine noises, global properties of visual stimuli in newborns, and coarse sensorimotor feedback before and for a few weeks after birth. By being more responsive to these early environmental influences, the right hemisphere may become dominant for perceiving various nonphonetic sounds, for processing global properties of visual stimuli, and for maintaining postural control. In...

Mechanisms Operative in the Developing Brain

Many efforts during the past two decades to develop a suitable animal model for studying FAS met with only limited success. Microencephaly (reduced brain mass) is a characteristic finding in FAE FAS victims, and it was demonstrated that exposure of immature rodents to ethanol in late gestation or during the first two postnatal weeks caused a reduction in brain mass. However, numerous additional animal studies failed to provide an explanation for the reduced brain mass. A modest loss of neurons from the cerebellum was described, but this cannot explain an overall reduction in brain mass, nor can it explain the types of neurobehavioral disturbances observed in FAE FAS victims. The fact that treatment during the neonatal period (the first 2 weeks after birth) caused cerebellar neuronal loss and a reduced brain mass helped to narrow the period of peak vulnerability to the early neonatal period, which in the rodent is a time of rapid brain growth, sometimes called the brain growth spurt...

Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

Figure 22.1 The upper figure (A) illustrates the rapid reduction in pulmonary arterial wall thickness occurring immediately after birth in the normal lung. This process is profoundly disturbed in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) and an increase in medial thickness eventually leads to pulmonary vascular obstructive disease (PVOD) if the pressure remains high. Insert shows abnormal, hypertensive human peripheral pulmonary artery at three days, stained for yactin. Mechanisms are illustrated in B, C, and D. (B) Confocal and transmission electron microscopy shows, in the left hand panel, the normal porcine peripheral pulmonary artery, and in the right hand panel, the pulmonary hypertensive vessel at three days. Normal remodelling entails reorganisation of the smooth muscle cell actin cytoskeleton which undergoes transient disassembly as the cells thin and elongate to spread around an enlarging lumen. In PPHN larger cells are packed with red actin myofilaments...

Neuropathological Evidence for Neural Injury before Birth in Schizophrenia

However, these data are not conclusive, since some studies have not found evidence for abnormal migration in schizophrenia,42 44 and other, more consistent findings such as alterations to neuronal size and synaptic and dendritic organisation may occur later in life, well after birth.5,35 The differences between studies may reflect the methodological difficulties and subde nature of the cytoarchitectural changes.35 Alternatively, it could mean that in many cases the putative in utero insult may occur after mid-gestation, when migration is largely complete.45,46 At this stage there is a marked increase in glial proliferation and if correct this would suggest that we should expect to see a consistent reduction in the amount of white matter.45,46

Ontogenesis of RBC autoantibody response

Early work showed that neonatal thymectomy of NZB mice failed to prevent the generation of RBC autoantibody, although thymectomy immediately after birth appeared to delay the onset of autoantibody production. It was also established that RBC autoantibody production can be transferred to irradiated non-NZB H-2d recipients with bone marrow cells. Since the anti-RBC plaque-forming response still occurred in chronically T-depleted recipients, it was argued that an intrinsic defect was present in NZB B cells and implied that the RBC autoantibody response was T-independent. Recent work calls these interpretations into question. First, SCID mice repopulated with NZB pre-B cells fail to develop RBC autoantibodies despite that fact that high levels of IgM anti-DNA and low levels of IgG anti-DNA are generated. Secondly, chronic treatment of NZB mice with monoclonal anti-CD4 prevents or considerably delays the generation of RBC autoantibodies. Interestingly, anemia still occurs in...

Hoffding Stepphenomenon

The German philosopher and psychologist Harald Hoffding (1843-1931) advanced the notion that laughter - as an expression of pleasant feelings - is possible at a lower stage of consciousness than is involved in the upper-level of the appreciation of the ridiculous. According to Hoffding's theory of humor laughter, laughter may be aroused, also, by certain physical conditions without being the expression of any emotion (e.g., intense cold may produce laughter as well as shivering). In Hoffding's analysis, smiling does not appear until the fourth week after birth, when it is accompanied by various bleating sounds such sounds - together with the smile - develop later into laughter which is considered originally as an expression of satisfaction. Hoffding's position on laughter approaches Hobbes' humor theory when the former examines how laughter is aroused by the perception of the ludicrous laughter is primarily an expression of pleasure in general, but...

Possible influences on fearful behaviour in cats

Another factor that is important in determining feline personality is genetics, and the specific influence on boldness and timidity is something that needs to be taken into consideration. Kittens can be reliably identified from the behaviour of their fathers even when they have never met (Turner et al., 1986) and inheritance of the 'boldness' trait is believed to be an important factor in avoiding problems of fearful behaviour in later life (McCune, 1995). Research has concentrated on the paternal component of this aspect of behaviour, since it is easier to separate genetic and observational influences on kitten behaviour when the torn is not in direct contact with the kittens after birth. However, this does not mean that the queen is insignificant in her contribution to the personality of her offspring, and maternal genetic influences should also be considered.

Background to the idiotype network theory

It should be pointed out that not all idiotypic (Id) determinants seem to be equally immunogenic. The dominant idiotopes that are expressed in high amounts in the circulation rarely cause anti-Id responses compared to individual or minor idiotopes. However, experiments carried out with animals in which the expression of cross-reactive idiotypes were suppressed after birth showed that such animals are able to produce anti-Id antibodies subsequent to injection with cross-reactive idiotypes.

Changes in Foetal Circulation at Birth

At birth, pulmonary vascular resistance falls markedly as the lungs expand and become aerated. This reduces pulmonary arterial pressures and increases blood flow to the left atrium. Umbilical vessels constrict strongly when exposed to trauma, tension, catecholamines, angiotensin and PaO2. These stimuli occur at birth and placental circulation ceases resulting in a rise in systemic vascular resistance and arterial pressure. These changes make left atrial pressure higher than right atrial pressure and tend to close the foramen ovale. The ductus arteriosus closes soon after birth usually within 48 H. The mechanism for this closure has not been completely identified, although a high PaO2 appears to initiate the closure and exposure to a low PaO2 can reverse the closure in the neonate. Prostaglandins maintain the patency of the ductus arteriosus and indomethacin may be successful in closing a patent ductus arteriosus in a neonate.

In Vitro Fertilization and Surrogacy

The birth mother (surrogate) usually signs a contract to allow the adoption of the baby upon birth. However, hormonal changes during pregnancy, especially the increased levels of oxytocin, can produce a variety of behavioral changes, often termed maternal instinct, in the pregnant woman. The woman may have been quite willing to surrender the child upon birth, but she may have become unwilling to do so after birth.

Physiological Functions of atRA

The many RAR knockouts illustrate the physiological functions of vitamin A. Disruption of the RARa gene, the RAR with the most widespread, if not ubiquitous, expression in the embryo and adult, does not cause embryonic lethality but reduces the homozygous null population by 60 within 12-24 h after birth and by 90 within 2 months. The RARa null mice that survive 4 or 5 months have severe germinal epithelium degeneration and are sterile. RAR 3 gene null mice are fertile and viable and show no immediate signs of morphological abnormalities. Nevertheless, complementary data show that RAR,3 may mediate the antiproliferative function of atRA and as such may serve as a tumor suppressor. Moreover, RAR 3 null mice have virtually no hippocampal long-term potentiation or long-term depression, the forms of synaptic plasticity that provide a mechanism of short-term spatial learning and memory. This phenomenon can be reproduced by vitamin A depletion. RAR7 null mice have an 86 incidence of skeletal...

Appetitive movements of face mouth and tongue

Lastly, from the very first day after birth, the mother's general body odour (gathered on clothing) stimulates oro-lingual responses in newborns more efficiently than another mother's odour (Sullivan and Toubas 1998). Oral movements can thus be highly selective, and can express neonatal motivation to explore and orally grasp the offered stimulus. The hypothesis that these oral movements anticipate feeding is suggested by the comparison of responses to different odours in the tested newborns, before and after nursing (see below).

Parvovirus Infection And Immunity

Parvoviruses infect many animals including humans, and almost every species has its own parvovirus pathogen. Epidemics in dogs, swine, geese and mink are major practical concerns of veterinarians. Because of the requirement for actively proliferating cells, the developing fetus and the newborn are at highest risk of disease following parvovirus infection. Infection can lead to fetal death, congenital malformations or predominant damage to single organs that may not be manifest until weeks after birth, such as the cerebellar ataxia that follows in utero feline parvovirus infection. Parvovirus infection of young animals can be clinically severe, with manifestations of encephalopathy, hepatitis or myocarditis. Parvoviruses cause a variety of diseases in adult animals, including gastroenteritis in cats, dogs and mink, leukopenia in cats, and immune complex glomerulonephritis in mink persistently infected with Aleutian disease virus.

Competitive Exclusion

Other enteric pathogens, particularly when cultures are administered to animals shortly after birth while the ecology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is relatively naive. 1 The mechanism by which CE cultures confer protection is not clearly understood but may involve one or more of the following factors 1) blockage of potential attachment sites 2) production of bacteriocins by endogenous bacterial species 3) maintenance of gut pH by volatile fatty acids and 4) competition for nutrients.

The learning of flavour by the neonate

About eleven weeks after a baby is conceived it has developed an olfactory epithelium (Doty 1992). At this stage the only source of any olfactive stimulus is from the amniotic fluid surrounding the baby, however, this is in contact with the mother's blood and there is considerable evidence that volatile flavour molecules from the mother's diet can reach the baby in utero (Schaal, Marlier el al. 1998, 2000). As the baby grows and its brain develops it experiences more and more olfactive stimuli because it regularly takes amniotic fluid into its lungs which passes over the olfactive epithelium. Especially in the last few months before birth the food eaten by the mother has a strong influence on those flavours which will be preferred by the baby after birth (Menella, Jagnow el al. 2001, Schaal, Soussignan and Marlier 2002) though hardly any courses in prenatal instruction appear to mention this fact to mothers-to-be. After the baby has been born many new sensations become part of its...

Sensitivity of early olfactory detection

Research referred to in the first section indicates that olfactory discrimination capacity improves with postnatal age. Self et al. (1972) analysed the evolution of olfactory reactivity over the three first days after birth in terms of variations in respiratory rhythm and various behavioural indices. To that aim, she exposed newborns to constant, supra-liminal artificial odorants selected on the basis of their presumed lack of trigeminal elements (extracts of aniseed, Asa foetida, lavender and valerian) and to control stimulations (dry and humid blanks). As early as the first day after birth, over two-thirds of infants were capable of detecting most of these odorants. The percentage of subjects reactive to Asa foetida, lavender, or valerian, tends to increase between days 1 and 3. Is this increased reactivity connected with improved sensitivity of the olfactory system, or with functional changes in the effectors on which the detection indices are based

Do feeding experiences in early life modify brain structure

The relationship between the emotional content of an eating situation and the flavour of the food has never, to the knowledge of the author, been considered in terms of the direct part it may play in the development of the baby's brain. There are, however, several things which lead to the conclusion that this could be an important and neglected influence on neonatal development. First, we have the well known fact that among all our senses it is only smell which directly influences the amygdala of the brain, the part that is the source of emotions. Second, the human brain is particularly plastic after birth and its growth and neural interconnectivity, especially in relation to the higher cognitive functions, is strongly influenced by sensory stimuli. Third, and most obviously, feeding

The Stem Cell Environment Cytokines and Pluripotency

Genetic studies LIFR-null embryos die shortly after birth, and exhibit reduced bone mass and profound loss of moto-neurons. Embryos homozygous for the gp130 mutation die between 12 and 18 days postcoitum (dpc) because of placen-tal, myocardial, hematological, and neurological disorders. CTFR-deficient mice exhibit perinatal death and display profound motor neuron deficits.

Body Weight Body Composition and Growth

As described earlier, seasonal climates may affect nutritional status via a combination of reduced dietary intake, increased physical activity, and increased disease incidence, and may occur to a variable extent in different populations and socioeconomic groups. As a result, both energy balance and micronutrient status may be affected, and this is confirmed by the observation of changes in body weight and body composition in adults, growth performance in children, pregnancy weight gain, and birth weight as well as by changes in micronutrient status. Seasonal stress continues after birth for both mothers and children. In The Gambia lactating women lost on average 0.74 kg month-1, at the same rate of nonlactating women. As shown earlier, during the wet season very young children get less attention and less breast milk from their mothers and their growth is affected. In Taiwan, children born in the hot wet summer season were smaller, but could catch-up in the following 3 months, while...

Clinical Description

In symptomatic individuals, certain clinical manifestations are common. In women, menorrhagia is frequently reported and there is an increased risk of bleeding after childbirth. 9 Epistaxis may occur, whereas petechiae and bruising are rather unusual. 9 Bleeding can be excessive and frequently manifests postoperatively, in particular after surgical procedures involving tissues with high fibrinolytic activity such as dental extractions, tonsillec-tomies, prostatectomies, or urinary tract operations. For other surgical interventions such as appendectomies, orthopedic operations, cholecystectomies, or hysterectomies, the risk of severe bleeding is less pronounced. 10 Sometimes the first bleeding episode is observed after circumcision. 9 Bleeding can be immediate, 9 but typically, it is protracted or presents as persistent oozing after surgery. 10

Memory and plasticity of olfactory function in early life 1841 Early postnatal shaping of odour preferences

Also, monitoring, between postnatal days 1 and 5, of the development of relative attraction towards two odour substrata, to which the infants were exposed just before or just after birth (amniotic fluid and milk), confirms the importance of repeated exposure in establishing infant discrimination and hedonic aptitudes. During days 1 to 3, the infants did not respond to the two stimulations in differential ways, indicating equal sensory and or motivational treatment of them (Marlier el al. 1997). However, with increasing age and nursing experience, they displayed an enhanced attraction for the milk odour compared to amniotic fluid odour, and this differentiation was significantly apparent after day 3. Progressively divergent responses towards the two odours can be explained by two mechanisms. The first phase (days 1-3 with 0-12 feeds) seems to reflect newborn preference for an odour acquired in the womb, as well as equivalent sensory and or hedonic responses to milk and amniotic odours....

Src Family of Protein Tyrosine Kinases

Resources Aid Physical Development

The unique functions of Src were revealed when P. Soriano knocked out the mouse src gene. Surprisingly, considering the profound effects of activated v-src on vertebrate cells, absence of src had remarkably mild effects on development in utero. However, some defects were detected after birth. Teeth failed to erupt through the gum, and the cranium grew to form a domed shape. Both of these phenotypes are due to increased bone density, attributable to altered osteoclasts, the macro-phage-related blood cells that resorb and remodel bone. Detailed studies of src mutant osteoclasts indicate that they differentiate normally but have a reduced ability to form specialized adhesion contacts through which they stick to bone and initiate bone resorption. However, blood platelets and neurons, where Src is highly expressed, are not noticeably altered in src mutant mice.

Development of Microflora

The GI tract is essentially sterile at the time of birth and bacterial colonization begins upon exposure to the environment. Progression of colonization is initially fast, followed by a gradual process of modification over the first few years of life. As the baby passes through the birth canal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are typically acquired and rapid colonization of mainly enterobacteria occurs. The hospital environment, type of feeding, and type of delivery affect the early colonization of the intestine after birth. Normal vaginal birth permits the transfer of bacteria of the mother as the infant passes through

Growth Infancy Through Adolescence

After birth, the complex growth process causes the dimensions of bones in the lower limbs to continue to increase until maturity (46). The most accurate data correlating long bone length with chronological age at death originate from radiographic studies of the living. Data on long-bone growth from such studies are provided by Anderson and Green (47) Anderson, Green, and Messner, (48) Anderson, Messner, and Green (49) as well as Francis (50), Ghantus (51), Gindhart (52), Hoffman (53), Maresh (37,38), and Maresh and Deming (39).

Breast Feeding During Illness

Mothers with hepatitis B can breast-feed their infants if the infant receives the hepatitis B vaccine during the first few days after birth. There is no evidence that hepatitis C is transmitted by breast-feeding. Mothers with chronic hepatitis C are often advised that they can nurse their infants, but they should discuss this with their physician. Other types of infections need to be evaluated by the obstetrician and pediatrician, but nearly all are likely to be safe for breast-feeding.

The Elusive Cardiac Stem Cell

The adult mammalian heart has long been considered a post-mitotic organ without an endogenous population of stem cells, which instead contain a relatively constant number of myocytes that cease to divide shortly after birth and remain constant into senescence. A long-standing view is that the inability of differentiated cardiac myocytes to reenter the cell cycle may present the ultimate impediment to the heart's regenerative capacity and may be responsible for the drastic effects of acute and chronic myocyte death in the surviving myocardium after infarction.

Nutritional Programming

We have developed a rodent model of fetal programming using maternal undernutrition throughout pregnancy. On day one of pregnancy animals are randomly assigned to a standard rat diet ad libitum throughout pregnancy (ad libitum (AD) group) or 30 of the AD group intake of the standard diet throughout gestation (undernourished, UN group). After birth, litter size and birth weights are recorded and litter size is adjusted to 8 pups per litter. The number of pups born per litter from UN and AD mothers is identical in this experimental approach it is not affected by maternal undernutrition. The UN offspring are cross-fostered within 24 hours of birth onto AD dams to assure adequate and standardised nutrition from birth until weaning. At birth offspring of UN mothers had fetal and placental weights that were 25 30 lower than offspring of AD mothers. A lack of catch-up growth despite a standard postnatal diet4 was accompanied by a transient reduction in circulating IGF-I and hepatic IGF-I...

Congenital dislocation and developmental dysplasia of hip

Previously this condition was known as congenital dislocation of the hip (CDH). However the correct term is developmental dysplasia of hip (DDH) because in many cases the condition is not present at birth but rather develops after birth. Secondly in a majority of cases there is no frank dislocation but a dysplasia (poorly developed acetabulum) leading to instability of the hip joint.

Cognitive and Behavioral Differences

Behavioral differences are obvious between the sexes shortly after birth. Newborn boys cry more, respond less to parental comforting, and require more holding than girls. Newborn girls respond more strongly than boys to adult faces and to being held. Boys are somewhat more interested than girls in inanimate nonsocial objects. Boys seem to begin technical problem-solving

Cell Kinetics of the Enterocyte

After birth, new cells move in the direction of the lumen and mitosis continues for two or three more divisions while each cell remains within the crypt. As the enterocyte emerges out of the crypt, proliferation ceases and the process of differentiation proceeds so that the cell, now passing up the outer surface of the villus, reaches functional maturity with a full capacity of membrane-bound brush border enzymes toward the villus tip. On reaching the tip, enterocytes are sloughed off into the intestinal lumen and digested.

Studies In Experimental Animals

Jannsen et al. (Janssen, et al., 2000) have conducted studies in the PEX5 - - mouse model of human ZS. These animals show clinical and neuropathological abnormalities similar to those in the human disease, including the characteristic defect in neuronal migration. At birth, levels of DHA in brain were 40 less than in control littermates, but DHA levels in the liver were normal. Because the PEX5-deficient animals are incapable of synthesizing this substance, all of their DHA must have been supplied by the mother. The maternal supply appears sufficient to maintain normal DHA concentrations in the liver, but insufficient to maintain levels in the fetal brain. We have obtained similar results of our studies in the PEX2 - - mouse model of human ZS (Su, et al., 2000). The demonstration of the fetal brain DHA deficit provides the opportunity to determine whether DHA supplementation can ameliorate the neurological deficits. To test this hypothesis the diet of the mothers' of PEX5-1 -mutants...

Acquisition of passively transferred immunity

In all higher vertebrates mechanisms have evolved to ensure that passive immune protection is provided to the neonate to assist in control of microbial challenge after birth until the endogenous immune mechanisms of the newborn animal have achieved sufficient functional maturity. The extent to which this occurs before or after birth differs vastly between species, an adaptation which is related to the type of placen-tation (Table 2). Ungulates obtain no immunoglobulin prenatally from the maternal circulation and are born agammaglobulinemic, but large quantities of maternal IgG are selectively transported into the mammary gland just prior to parturition and are ingested and absorbed intact into the circulation by the suckling neonate. The intestine in newborn ruminants is consequently adapted for large-scale uptake of intact immunoglobulin across the gut into the neonatal circulation in the first 24-28 hours of life, during which time the large, palely staining vacuolated cells of the...

Cross Cultural Examples of Child Growth

Two volumes by Eveleth and Tanner (1976,1990). Also see Ulijaszek, Johnston, and Preece (1998). There is relatively little difference between individuals cross-culturally in growth before birth, as birth length clusters at 50 cm and mean birth weight ranges from 2.4 kg to 3.4 kg. To be sure, infants born to smaller, undernourished, or ill mothers may be shorter and weigh less than infants born to taller, heavier, or healthier mothers. Indeed, birth weight serves as an indication of the overall health of the infant, and epidemiologists use the mean birth weight of a social group as an indication of its general quality of life. Even so, more variation between individuals and populations develops with time after birth. By adulthood, the range in stature is from 184 cm for young men in the Netherlands (Fredriks et al., 2000) to 145 cm for Efe Pygmy men (Dietz, Marino, Peacock, & Bailey, 1989). In these and other populations, adult women are from 8 cm to 14 cm shorter than men. Population...

Explaining Cross Cultural Variation

Homosexual behaviors are rare in societies with monogamous nuclear families where husbands and wives sleep in the same room, and where there is close father-child contact. Homosexuality and transvestism are also rare in societies with the couvade (Carroll, 1978 Munroe, 1980). Although early researchers explained these findings with neo-Freudian theories about sex identities, a more parsimonious explanation might be that they simply reflect a society's attitude toward paternal investments. By spending more time with the children of just one wife, a father automatically devotes more of his resources to his children. And by submitting to couvade taboos around the time of birth he demonstrates to all of society his willingness to assume his paternal responsibilities. In societies with the couvade, fathers are more likely to sleep apart from their wives during the first months or even years after birth. Rather than indicate less paternal investment, this may in fact indicate greater...

DNA Methylation and Chromatin Remodeling

The first connection between DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling came from studies in Arabidopsis. Mutation of a gene called DDM1 (decrease in DNA methylation) yielded plants with numerous growth defects and a profound loss of genomic 5-methylcytosine. The growth defects and losses of DNA methylation became progressively greater with increasing generations of inbreeding.74 Rather than a DNA methyltransferase, DDMl is a member of the SNF2 family of ATPases. Further evidence of a connection between DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling comes from studies of a human protein called ATRX. The ATRX gene is mutated in a human genetic disease called ATR-X syndrome (a-thalassemia, mental retardation, X-linked).75 ATRX is a member of the CHD subfamily of ATPases and has been shown to associate with transcriptionally inactive heterochromatin and due to its structure, may have a role in chromatin remodeling. ATRX patients also demonstrated DNA methylation defects, although they were far...

E Gaba Affects Overall Excitability

Outside of the CNS, compromised GABA signaling during development produces cleft palate, a craniofa-cial abnormality in which the roof of the mouth fails to close completely. Animal studies suggest that the barbiturate diazepam, which interacts with GABAA receptors, can cause palatal defects. In addition, mice lacking GAD67 are born with cleft palate and die shortly after birth. The route by which GABA may be associated with cleft palate is not well understood.

Olfactory preferences established independently of postnatal experience

Other points specific to our own species support the hypothesis that nasal chemosensory detection does function in the foetus. Maturation of the chemo-receptor system is sufficiently advanced at the end of gestation to make the processing of chemical information possible (Schaal et al. 1995c, 2005). Chemical analysis has revealed the presence of numerous potentially odorous components in amniotic fluid (Schaal 2005). Lastly, fetal brain aptitude in detecting intra-uterine sensory information and in proving capable of retaining it after birth has been demonstrated in audition (DeCasper and Spence 1986, Granier-Deferre et al. 2005). For obvious ethical reasons, the human foetus is not accessible for experimentation. Accordingly, a posteriori approaches have to be devised to examine the aptitude of the foetal brain to memorise odours. These approaches examined responses of newborns to prenatal odours. It was first proven that newborns remain attracted to the odour of amniotic fluid...

Advantages Of Markerassisted Selection

Traditional methods of selection can produce very accurate evaluations of genetic merit for traits that are high in heritability (observed or measured value is a good predictor of breeding value) or for individuals that have many progeny with phenotypes recorded. However, many traits of economic importance in livestock are low or moderate (10 40 ) in heritability or can only be measured postmortem, in which case, accurate genetic evaluations are only possible through progeny testing. Other important traits can only be measured late in the productive life of the individual. For these traits, accurate genetic evaluations can only be obtained after the selection decision (to produce progeny) has been made. These are the traits for which MAS is expected to accelerate the rate of genetic improvement1-1'2-1 because the DNA testing component of MAS can be obtained and combined with marker-adjusted estimates of the parents' breeding values anytime after birth. In theory, it is possible to...

Gender over the Life Cycle Socialization of Boys and Girls

Long, and dress, with boys wearing shorts and shirts, and girls wearing dresses as well as shorts and shirts. Both infant boys and girls are provided with a baki ritual named bagor soon after birth, to introduce them to the spiritual beings. Christian Ifugao may also, or only, have their infant children baptized in a Catholic church or participate in a Protestant dedication ritual. Ifugao conduct a baki ritual when naming their children. One early rite of passage in which only boys participate is the first cutting of their hair, which includes a baki religious ritual and feast (Barton, 1911).

Hepatic Lobar Agenesis

Ectopic Liver Tissue Radiology

After birth, possibly because of abrupt termination of the oxygenated umbilical venous inflow, the left lobe shrinks considerably so that the fetal lateral segment often comes to be located closer to the midline than the fetal medial segment. However, by convention, the fetal nomenclature for these segments is maintained after birth. The ligamenta teres and venosus lie within fissures that separate the left medial and lateral segments and the caudate lobe. Location of the liver can be abnormal, with one or more segments hypoplastic or absent36-38 (Fig. 2-26). Occasionally, the right rather than the left

Pregnancy and Fetal Growth

Since World War II, the role of maternal nutrition in fetal growth and development has been extensively studied in the context of protein-calorie malnutrition. The role of n-3 fatty acids has only recently come into focus, despite the evidence of its importance having been demonstrated in a series of studies between 1928 and 1930 involving rats and primates. Lipid nutrition during pregnancy and lactation is of special relevance to human development, because brain development in the human takes place during fetal life and in the first 2 years after birth. DHA is found in larger amounts in the gray matter of the brain and in the retinal membranes, where it accounts for 30 or more of the fatty acids in the ethanolamine and serine phos-pholipid. DHA accumulates in the neurons of the brain between weeks 26 and 40 of gestation in humans. with increasing neuromotor activity. The increase in cell size, number, and type requires de novo synthesis of structural lipids, leading to accumulation...

Findings about Morbidity and Mortality

In the 1980s some African clinician-activists from countries that practice those rites documented and brought to the world's attention the accompanying morbidity and mortality. Those pioneering medical studies include the ones conducted in the Sudan by Asma El Dareer (1982), in Sierra Leone by Olayinka Koso-Thomas (1987), and in Somalia by Raquiya Haji Dualeh Abdalla (1982). The death, infection, and disabilities associated with the rites are well established, challenging local beliefs that the rites promote health and well-being. For example, as Koso-Thomas (p. 10) pointed out, stable medical evidence discredits the belief that death could result if, during delivery, the baby's head touches the clitoris, and Abdalla (p.16) pointed to the disutility of regional practices of putting salt into the vagina after childbirth because this induces the narrowing of the vagina to restore the vagina to its former shape and size and make intercourse more pleasurable for the husbands.

Dna Methylation During Normal Development

Proteine Polysaccharide Vaccin

The essential role of DNA methylation in mammalian development is highlighted by the fact that mutant mice lacking each of the enzymes (generated by gene targeting) are not viable and die either during early embryonic development (Dnmtl and Dnmt3b) or shortly after birth (Dnmt3a). The knockout of Dnmt3l leads to male infertility and the failure to establish imprints in female eggs. Disruption of Dnmt2 did not reveal any obvious effects on genomic DNA methylation. The biological role of Dnmt2 is still elusive however, a possible role in centromere function has been suggested.

Conclusions and future trends

In humans, as in other mammals, nasal chemoreception is already functional before birth and it can then contribute to the behavioural and physiological adjustments necessary to adaptive transitions in the postnatal period (cf. Schaal 2005). Chemosensory systems are comprehensive in nature, i.e. they can detect a large spectrum of odorants and flavorants, and are open to early influences, as attested by the variety of stimuli influencing behaviour and the variety of rewarding means and contexts which can boost up learning processes. However, some findings suggest that olfactory learning in early life may be paralleled with cognitive mechanisms that are more or less pre-functional. Certain odorants, often carried in homospecific milk, have particular reactogenic properties which are revealed in the absence of any prolonged exposure after birth. Such inborn predispositions may result either from sensory images shaped by pre-birth interaction between olfactory neurons and the environment,...

Choline And Brain Development

Choline availability during embryogenesis and perinatal development are especially important for brain development. There are two sensitive periods in rat brain development during which treatment with choline (about 1 mmol d administered to the mother during a critical period during pregnancy, or 300 mg kg administered subcutaneously 2 wk after after birth) produces long-lasting enhancement of spatial memory that is lifelong (28-36). The first critical period occurs during embryonic d 12-17 (rats give birth on d 21) and the second occurs during postnatal days 16-30. Choline supplementation during these critical periods elicits a major improvement in memory performance at all stages of training on a 12-arm radial maze. The two sensitive periods for memory responsiveness to supplemental cho-line correlate with the formation of cholinergic neurons (neurogenesis prenatal) and with the formation of nerve-nerve connections (synaptogenesis prenatal and postnatal) in the hippocampus and basal...

Cumulative Advantage Doctrine Of See Matthew Effect

The cupboard theory is one of the earliest explanations for the phenomenon of infant attachment. The theory refers to the mother's providing food when her infant is hungry, warmth when it is cold, and dryness when it is wet and uncomfortable. That is, the mother functions virtually as a cupboard of supplies for her infant. Through her association with the infant and giving such needed supplies, the mother herself becomes a positive stimulus (conditioned reinforcer) and, as a result of the association process, the infant clings to her and demonstrates other signs of attachment. A number of experiments conducted on the phenomenon of infant attachment in the monkey, however, indicate unequivocally that the cupboard theory cannot account exclusively for attachment behavior in infants. Rather, the clinging behavior (in the case of the monkeys, clinging to a soft, cuddly form) in infants appears to be an innate response. The American psychologist Harry Harlow (1905-1981)...

Primordial Germ Cells

In the mouse, PGCs are visible as alkaline phosphatase (AP) positive cells at the base of the allantois at 7.5 to 8.0 days postcoitus (dpc). They begin to associate with the endo-derm that is invaginating to form the hindgut at 8.5 dpc. By 10.5 dpc, PGCs are associated with dorsal mesenteries and are translocated to the genital ridges. The migration of PGCs is caused by both cellular migration and association with moving tissues. Throughout this migration, PGCs expand from approximately 130 cells at 8.5dpc to more than 25,000 at 13.5dpc. Once they arrive at the genital ridge, PGCs continue proliferating until they enter prophase of the first meiotic division. In males, entry into meiosis is inhibited by signals from the developing testis, blocking PGCs at G0 until after birth. In the absence of inhibitory signals, female PGCs undergo oogenesis.

Major histocompatibility complex antigens

There are also class I-like molecules encoded by genes residing outside the MHC and on different chromosomes. 1) Neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) first detected in rats and more recently in mice and humans, is involved in the acquisition of passive humoral immunity in young mammals during the first few weeks after birth. FcRn binds immunoglobulin G (IgG) from ingested mother's milk and transports it through gut epithelial cells into the bloodstream by transcytosis. 2) CD1 is a small multigene family, so far detected in several mammals including the mouse, rat and human. These antigens do not show significant polymorphism. CD1 proteins present nonpeptide lipid (mycolic acid) or glycolipid antigens from intracellular mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium leprae and M. tuberculosis to CD8+ a(3 T, CD4 CD8 a(3 T or y5 T cells or T cells within epithelial sheets. 3) Zinc a2-glycoprotein, a zinc-precipitable protein of human plasma, is another oligomorphic MHC-unlinked

Apoptosis In The Heart

The adult cardiomyocyte has limited (if any) ability to proliferate. Correspondingly, apoptosis is observed infrequently in adult hearts. In contrast, cardiomyocyte apoptosis plays a critical role in heart formation, such as formation of septa between cardiac chambers and valves. This evidence suggests that defects in apoptosis can result in congenital heart disease. Major foci of apoptosis include zones of fusion of the atrioventricular or bulbar cushions, and both aortic and pulmonary valves in non-myocytes. Myocyte apoptosis also occurs in the interventricular septum and right ventricular wall after birth, during the transition from fetal to adult circulations. The conducting tissue also undergoes apoptosis, and aberrant apoptosis is implicated in congenital heart block and long QT syndrome or the persistence of accessory pathways.

Ontogenetic and phyiogenetic significance of the idiotype network

Shown that the injection of idiotype into mice during pregnancy stimulates the generation of idiotype-spe-cific helper cells in neonates, which can expand silent clones to become dominant. Similar results can be obtained with anti-Id antibodies administered after birth. In physiological terms, it is advantangeous for progeny to inherit the immune experience of the mother with an expansion of clones that are specific for common pathogens of a given species. This is particularly important in the period of postnatal life when the concentration of antibodies provided from the mother starts to decline.

Dha Therapy For Patients With Disorders Of Peroxisome Biogenesis

The rationale for DHA therapy in PBD is simple and, at first glance, compelling DHA is important for brain and retinal function, it is deficient in PBD patients, and its level in blood and probably also in brain and retina can be increased by oral DHA administration. A serious limitation is that malformations in brain and other organs develop during fetal life and cannot be remedied by postnatal therapy. Thus, the rationale for therapy is based on the hypothesis that correction of DHA deficiency can remedy secondary ill effects that occur postnatally. Martinez has emphasized that in normal brain, DHA levels increase most rapidly during the perinatal period (Martinez, et al., 1974). Postnatally, brain DHA levels increase at a lower rate from the second month until the second year and level off thereafter (Martinez, 1992). It is postulated therefore that DHA therapy in PBD patients has the greatest chance of success if it is begun during the first 2 yr of life, and preferably shortly...

Way to Test Multistage Models

In the 1960s, the importance of somatic mutations and the nature of stages in progression continued to be debated (Foulds 1969). Several authors developed the idea that cancer arises by the accumulation of genetic mutations to cell lineages. Burch (1963) noted that if a sequence of mutations drives progression, then some individuals may inherit one mutation and obtain the rest after birth by somatic mutation. Burch