Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Animal Production Systems

Department of Animal Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S.A. Kristen A. Johnson Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, U.S.A. The burning of fossil fuels and allied human activities of recent centuries result in increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the earth's atmosphere. These major gases and other miscellaneous gases and particles act like a greenhouse, blocking...

Growth and Development Pre Implantation Embryo

Stage Blastocyst Pig

Department of Animal Science and Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A& M University, Texas, U.S.A. Veterinary Integrative Biosciences and Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A& M University, Texas, U.S.A. Department of Animal Science and Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A& M University, Texas, U.S.A. In most species, ovulated ova are at Metaphase II of meiosis and remain so until fertilized within the oviduct some 5 30min after...

Conclusion Utility Of Acquired Immune Responses

Acquired immune responses ultimately determine whether an infectious organism will be controlled and disease prevented.1-3'6-1 Vaccines enhance immunity by altering the acquired immune response. Much research is now aimed at biotherapeutics that alter the balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses. Because cytokines set the direction and amplify the intensity of specific antipath-ogen and vaccine immune responses' setting the direction of the early specific acquired immune response will...

An Animals Own Performance

Animals were originally selected on the basis of their own phenotype. That is, cows that give the most milk, sows that have the largest litters, hens that lay the most eggs, and horses that run the fastest are examples of this type of selection. Although selection on phenotypes is very easy to apply, the accuracy of phenotypes as an estimate of genetic merit is equal to the square root of heritability. Heritability is the proportion of the variability in a trait that is attributable to genetics...

Manure As A Fertilizer For Crop Production

In the United States, animal agriculture accounts for approximately 100 billion annually, or half of all farm sales. The manure produced by dairy and beef cattle, poultry, and swine contains vast amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus (Table 1) that in some regions can be landapplied at agronomic rates on farms where it is produced.1-2-1 Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient to cereal crop production, so the fertilizer value of manure is usually equated to its ability to provide N to a...

Spermatogenesis

Spermatogenesis progresses through three phases sper-matocytogenesis, meiosis, and spermiogenesis. 1'2 Sper-matocytogenesis is the mitotic divisions of spermatogonia present in the basal compartment at the onset of spermatogenesis. Spermatogonia proliferate and differentiate, becoming primary spermatocytes. Primary sperma-tocytes are then transported to the adluminal compartment during transient dissolution of Sertoli cell junctions. Spermatocytes proceed through first meiosis, during which...

Nutrition

Feeding grain is common in U.S. feedlots. Corn or maize is the most prevalent, followed by grain sorghum (milo), barley, and wheat. Grain use is based on price, availability, and geographic region. Corn is a relatively abundant and inexpensive energy source containing approximately 70 starch. Feedlot diets generally contain 85 grain such as corn 5 to 12 forage or roughage such as alfalfa hay, corn silage, or grasses and 3 to 8 supplement. Diets may contain numerous types of byproduct feeds such...

Conclusion Future Objectives In Broiler Reproduction Management

The foregoing discussion leads to the main question Can the growth requirement of broiler breeder hens be allied with good reproductive performance, good health, and welfare, either by a feed restriction program which does not cause undue hunger, or by innovative genetic selection Several data in literature illustrate that growth and reproduction are mutually exclusive in selection goals, suggesting that there is a causal negative biological relation. If that is true, then one has to make...

Corn Wet Milling ByProducts

The corn wet-milling process is more complex than either of the dry-milling processes. Large plants are necessary for efficiency of production. Dry-milling ethanol plants may use 30,000 to 50,000 bushels of corn per day, whereas wet-milling plants grind 150,000 to over 500,000 bushels per day. The wet-milling process produces alcohol and several human food products including sweeteners and corn oil. In the first step, corn is steeped in weak acid and then milled (ground). After grinding, the...

Factors Affecting Fetal Growth

Numerous factors influence the growth of the fetus. The fetus derives nutrients from the maternal plasma through the placenta. Mothers on a high plane of nutrition give birth to larger offspring than those with nutritional limitations. Any restriction of blood supply to the placenta and fetus will hinder fetal growth. When competition for available maternal nutrients becomes greater, such as when a multiparous animal produces a larger than average litter, the placenta is generally smaller and...

Types Of Physical Mapping Techniques

The first technology used in physical mapping took advantage of cell lines derived from animals with identified chromosomal abnormalities (monosomics, tri-somics, or chromosomal translocations). The next technology utilized the results of fusing cells from the species of interest with rodent cell lines. A small portion of the fused cells proved to be viable and retained segments of the species of interest's genome (often whole chromosomes). Individual somatic cell hybrid lines were then...

Receptivity And Implantation Adhesion Cascade

Initial conceptus attachment requires loss of antiadhesive components, mainly mucins, contained in the glycocalyx of LE that sterically inhibit attachment. 1 The mucin, MUC1, exists as both an intrinsic transmembrane mucin and an alternatively spliced, secreted variant. Both forms are localized to the apical uterine LE to provide a barrier to attachment, but are generally reduced during the receptive phase (mice, pig, sheep) or locally at the site of blastocyst attachment (human, rabbit) due to...

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Detection and Diagnosis

National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, U.S.A. There has been an increased interest and demand for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diagnostics owing to the bovine spongiform encephalo-pathy (BSE) epidemic in Europe and the recent cases of BSE in North America, Israel, and Japan. In addition, scrapie eradication programs underway in the U.S.A. and Europe, as well as enhanced chronic wasting disease...

Obligate Vs Facultative Carnivores

Animals that eat only animal prey are sometimes called strict or obligate carnivores to distinguish them from facultative carnivores that eat mostly animal prey but also consume nonanimal foods. Felids are strict carnivores and, in the wild, obtain most of their food by predation on the tissues of mammals, birds, or fish. Their domestic representative, the cat (Felis catus), differs in several respects in its metabolism and nutrient requirements from the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), a canid...

Specialty Shell Eggs Production

Shell eggs are still a commodity item. They are packaged in simple and low-cost fiber or plastic cartons or flats that rarely have a brand name. These are sold at a low price, which strongly fluctuates with a small surplus or shortage of eggs. In countries where eggs are protected and prices are higher, sophisticated packages can be found, which can also cater to specific target groups. For example, a dozen eggs in clear packages wherein two eggs are chocolate eggs was developed to target...

Meat Quality in Cattle Live Evaluation

Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, U.S.A. Meat quality can be identified as those factors that affect the palatability of tenderness, flavor, and juiciness of meat products. Meat quality evaluations in the live animal try to predict eating quality and overall consumer satisfaction of meat products. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) established a set of standards commonly referred to as USDA quality grades, which predict the expected beef meat quality. These USDA quality...

Artificial Insemination

Artificial insemination, or deposition of semen in the female without contact between the male and female, is a common practice in most mammalian and avian species. This was the first application of genetic technology to livestock. 3 After semen is collected from the male, it is usually processed and stored to maintain maximal fertility until it is deposited in the female. Short-term storage of semen usually occurs at ambient or cool temperature. The optimal diluent for semen and storage...

References

Cryobanking Banking the Genetic Resource Wildlife Management for the Future Watson, P.F., Holt, W.V., Eds. Taylor and Francis London, 2001. 2. Liebermann, J. Nawroth, F. Isachenko, V. Isachenko, E. Rahimi, G. Tucker, M.J. Potential importance of vitrifi cation in reproductive medicine. Biol. Reprod. 2002, 67 (6), 1671 1680. 3. Kusakabe, H. Szczygiel, M.A. Whittingham, D.G. Yanagimachi, R. Maintenance of genetic integrity in frozen and freeze dried mouse spermatozoa. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S....

Choline

In mammalian but not avian species, the dietary need for choline can be replaced by excess methionine. In crystalline form, choline chloride (74.6 choline) is hygroscopic, and therefore it is considered a stress agent to other vitamins in a vitamin-mineral premix. Crystalline choline is considered quite stable in animal feeds and premixes. Crude plant oils (e.g., corn and soybean oil) contain choline as phospholipid-bound phosphatidyl choline. The bioavailability of choline in this form is at...

Species Differences in Amino Acid Metabolism

Metabolic pathways for most amino acids are generally similar between microorganisms and animals, but important differences do occur. For example, N-acetylglutamate is an intermediate of and an allosteric activator for arginine synthesis in microorganisms and animal cells, respectively. 2,5 Second, deiminase plays a significant role in microbial arginine degradation to form citrulline and ammonia animal cells, however, lack this pathway. Third, the conversion of proline into...

Vitamins Water Soluble Thiamin Riboflavin and B6

University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, U.S.A. The water-soluble vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, and B6 are involved in a wide variety of metabolic processes. Most of these processes are involved in the digestion and metabolism of nutrients. Like most of the B vitamins, the initial deficiency symptoms of each include decreased growth rate and poor general health status. The B vitamins are found in plant and animal tissues in varying concentrations and availabilities. While dietary recommendations...

Starter Diet Composition

Diet composition has a profound effect on how the poult makes the transition to its new metabolic state. 3 Traditional perception by the industry is that fat supplementation should be minimized for starting hatchlings. From a digestibility standpoint, research with feeding of animal fats and animal vegetable fat blends demonstrates that young hatchlings do not digest saturated fatty acids efficiently. However, unsaturated fatty acids are highly digestible (80 to 85 ) and may actually ease the...

Swine Management Systems Intensive

Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, U.S.A. Swine grow rapidly and produce large numbers of offspring. Intensive management systems are designed to allow swine to reach their full biological potential in terms of fecundity and growth. The primary management strategy upon which these systems are based is for humans to provide for the specialized needs of pigs during each stage of their reproductive and growth cycles. For most systems, there is a...

Myofibrillogenesis

Contractile myofibrils within myofibers extend the length of the myofiber and are composed of overlapping thick and thin filaments organized into repeating units called sarcomeres. Each sarcomere is bounded by perpendicular z-lines, which organize thin filaments and attach, via titin, to the thick filaments. Z-lines extend across the muscle cell and attach by transmembrane structures to the extracellular connective tissue. Sarcomeres, which are about 2.6-p.M long at rest, also serve as...

Vitamin D

Technically a hormone, vitamin D was a scientific quirk that resulted in this steroid initially being classified as a vitamin. During the early 20th century, a bone abnormality (i.e., rickets) of dogs raised indoors was corrected by a dietary fat-soluble compound. It was later discovered that irradiated skin fed to rachitic rats cured the condition. 6 Although body endogenous secretions provided protection for this malady, the rapidly growing field of nutrition, the discovery of vitamin A and...

Physiological Responses

Numerous physiological changes are associated with the stress response that enables the animal to adapt to aversive stimuli. Short-term activation of the HPA axis results in changes in metabolic responses such as rapid mobilization of energy stores for initiation of the fight-or-flight response. In the long run, suppression and changes in other physiological responses such as anabolic processes, energy stores, and the immune system have negative consequences. Stress results in mobilization of...

Limitations of Feeds from GM Crops

In most countries, products from transgenic plants are considered acceptable when they are substantially equivalent to products not derived by GM. However, consumer concerns have precipitated governmental restrictions in certain countries these hamper the international trade of GM crops. Because GM food crops have been grown on more than 230 million cumulative hectares worldwide over the past seven years 1 without any verified instances of adverse nutritional effects on livestock or humans,...

Introduction

Vitamins are essential organic compounds required in minute amounts in the diets of humans and animals for normal metabolic function. Vitamins are involved in over 30 metabolic reactions at the cellular level involving carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. All complete feeds made for livestock in confinement are fortified with crystalline or synthetic sources of vitamins. Crystalline vitamins supplement the natural vitamin content of feed ingredients (mainly grains) that are known to be...

Nutrient Management Diet Modification

University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A. Animal feeding operations are becoming more concentrated and the U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) has proposed more restrictive requirements. Great progress has been made in diet modifications designed to reduce animal excretion of nutrients. The nutrients of primary concern are nitrogen and phosphorus. Phosphorus (P) is an essential mineral nutrient required for bone growth and maintenance and for most body metabolic functions such as...

Mitosis and Meiosis

Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, U.S.A. Multicelled organisms are composed of millions or billions of cells. Although these cells perform numerous diverse functions, almost all of them contain the genetic information necessary for operation of the entire organism. This information is stored in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The structure and organization of DNA were discovered only 50 years ago. 1 Two unique processes must be present for these cells to contain the proper DNA....

Feeds Used And Conversion Rates

The feeds utilized by food-producing animals include forages from nonarable lands, cultivated forages, crop residues such as straw, and a wide range of food- and fiber-processing by-products. Some of the feeds used and estimated global amounts (million metric tons or MMT) fed in a recent year include straws from wheat, maize, rice, and barley (652) oil meals (116) brans (106) and bagasse (80). Information on these and many other byproduct feeds are summarized in Ref. 3 . Forages, crop residues,...

Poultry Manure Management Systems

Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service estimates show that from 1981 to 2001, the total number of broilers and turkeys increased by 100 and 59 , respectively.1-3-1 Figure 1 illustrates typical poultry housing, and manure handling, storage, and disposal systems used in the United States. Solid manure is typically removed using mechanical scrapers and front-end loaders. Liquid and slurry manure is removed from the houses by pumping or by flushing with...

Xenotransplantation Biological Barrier

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, U.S.A. Xenotransplantation, the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs between individuals of different species, is a subject of interest because it might be used to address a shortage of human organs for transplantation and for other purposes. While the potential applications of xenotrans-plantation are widely appreciated, the biological hurdles have prevented all but a small number of experimental trials. BIOLOGICAL HURDLES TO XENOTRANSPLANTATION The...

Ketosis

Ketosis is defined as a metabolic disorder in which the level of ketone bodies in body fluids is greatly elevated. Ketosis can occur in any animal under conditions of starvation however, it is most common in ruminants due to their dependence on gluconeogenesis to meet glucose needs. In ruminants, ketone bodies (p hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) are a product of normal metabolism by the liver and ruminal epithelium when animals are in positive energy balance. Acetoacetate is the parent ketone,...

Wool Biology and Production

Morphology Wool

CSIRO Livestock Industries, Wembley, Western Australia Wool is a generic description of hair from various breeds of domesticated sheep (Ovis aries). Wool appears to be the earliest material man used to spin and weave into clothing, with evidence of shears for harvesting wool being used around 1000 b.c. Requirement for shearing implies development of sheep with a continuously growing fleece. These developments associated with domestication have continued until this day, although wool is no...

Pagonist Lean Efficiency Enhancing Agents

The compounds most commonly studied include cima-terol, clenbuterol, L-644-969, ractopamine, salbutamol, and zilpaterol (Fig. 1). They are orally active and administered as feed ingredients. They belong to a class of compounds called phenethanolamines. This class of compounds has been used safely and effectively in human medicine for more than 30 years as bronchodilators for asthma treatment, uterine relaxants to treat pregnant women to arrest premature labor, and cardiostimulants to treat...

Mohair Production and Marketing

Texas A& M University, San Angelo, Texas, U.S.A. Mohair is the white, lustrous fiber produced by the Angora goat (Capra hircus aegagrus). This unique breed of goat, thought to have originated in the Asian Himalayas, had migrated to the Ankara region of Turkey by the 13th century. The breed obtained its name from this region. The word mohair is derived from the Arabic word mukhayar, variously translated as best of selected fleece, select choice, silky-goat skin cloth, cloth of bright goat...

Two Major Pathways Of The Stress Response

The degree to which homeostasis becomes unbalanced and leads to distress 1 is largely influenced by the impact of stress hormones on target cells. Glucocorticoids (primarily cortisol in farm animals) are the main effector endpoints of the neuroendocrine response to stressors, 2 and result from activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (Fig. 1). Systemic cortisol concentrations increase several minutes after a perceived threat and can last for a number of hours and recur in...

Molecular Biology Animal

Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, U.S.A. The past two decades have brought a revolution in molecular biology research and the emergence of new techniques such as high-throughput DNA sequencing, microarray, nuclear transfer, RNA interference, and mass spectrometry-based proteomic techniques. With these new technologies it is now possible to sequence the entire genome of any animal species, carry out systematic genome-wide screens of gene functions, and manipulate (delete, mutate,...

Identification Of Myostatin As The Mh Locus In Cattle

One example where molecular genetics identified causal mutations of an extreme phenotype is the elucidation of double-muscling in cattle. 1 For nearly 200 years, the muscular hypertrophy (mh) syndrome called double- Fig. 1 Diagram of myostatin mutations that cause double muscling in cattle. Abbreviations for the amino acid change and the position in the coding region are shown by arrows. Six of the known mutations are 1) Q204X, which changes a glutamine to a termination signal 2) E226X and 3)...

Nutrient Requirements Ruminants

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Clay Center, Nebraska, U.S.A. Nutrient needs of tissues of ruminants are similar to those of nonruminants. Tissues of ruminants require oxygen, water, energy, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, and fat-and water-soluble vitamins. Dietary needs of ruminants are simpler and often cheaper than for nonruminants because of anaerobic microbial metabolism in the rumen. Microbial metabolism of dietary intake also increases the...

Tools To Help With Swine Behavior Management And Wellbeing Definitions

Behavior data, acquisition, summary, and analysis are very time-consuming. 9 The researcher must decide on the classification of each behavior and this can add subjectivity or bias. Within the field of applied animal ethology and, in particular, the study of farm animal behavior, ethologists differ about what actions constitute a given behavior. This leads to a lack of consistency in comparing studies of swine behavior. Typically, at the beginning of a behavior experiment, an ethogram (a...

Beef Quality Beef Quality Grading

The USDA Quality Grade is determined by considering the degree of marbling, as observed in the cut surface of the ribeye between the 12th and 13th ribs, in relation to the overall maturity of the carcass. Marbling scores are assigned to the carcass depending on the degree of intramuscular fat that is present in the cut surface of the ribeye. Marbling scores have been established by the LSD and are referenced in the form of photographs 1 (Fig. 1). The marbling scores are Abundant, Moderately...

Peripheral Endocrine Organs

Of peripheral sources of protein hormones, the pancreas, the source of insulin and glucagon, has received the most emphasis. Deficiency of insulin action, due to lack of or response to insulin, results in diabetes. Insulin is produced by pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Cells within the islets also secrete glucagon, SRIH, pancreatic polypeptide, and amylin. Cellular uptake of glucose and amino acids is stimulated by insulin. Insulin and glucagon act in concert in the liver to maintain energetic...

Limitations To Using Manure As A Fertilizer

Effective recycling of manure nutrients through crops presents many challenges. For example, to achieve analytical results with a 95 confidence interval with a 10 probable error for manure N content, 1, 55, and 17 subsamples are required for dairy compost, chicken manure, and stockpiled beef manure, respectively.1-6-1 Another factor that inhibits good manure management is the large difference in the N P ratio of manure vs. the N P requirements of crops. Applying sufficient manure to meet crop N...

Ontogeny Adipose Tissue

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, Georgia, U.S.A. D. B. Hausman University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, U.S.A. Adipose tissue, now considered an endocrine organ, secretes or expresses many potential endocrine factors, including leptin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system proteins. Therefore, the structrual and functional aspects of adipose tissue ontogeny are important to the growing and mature animal. Fat cell development commences by...

Mammary Glands Hormonal Regulation

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. The mammary glands are fascinating organs that are designed to provide nutrients and immunological protection to the young. These glands are a microcosm of the organism in that they have a life cycle (Fig. 1), which proceeds with each subsequent pregnancy, parturition, and lactation. The first phase of the life cycle is mammogenesis or growth and development of the mammary gland. This includes the growth and proliferation of...

Water Buffalo

Cantho University, Can Tho City, Vietnam The water buffalo is considered to be a very useful animal in many countries, supplying draft power, meat, milk, and other by-products such as hides, horn, etc. The water buffalo is closely associated with water or mud, and with smallholder farmers in the rice fields. In recent years, buffalo production has developed well, not only in Asia, but also in Europe, South America, and other continents where the buffalo has been introduced. This article aims to...

Poultry Marine and Milk Products

Poultry feathers are virtually indigestible in their natural state, and disulfide bonds in feather keratin must be destroyed before the protein can be used by animals. The most widely used product is hydrolyzed feather meal, which is deficient in methionine, lysine, histidine, and tryp-tophan. Poultry by-product meal consists of the ground, rendered, clean parts of slaughtered poultry, exclusive of feathers. Fish meals are produced from fish caught specifically for making meals or from the...

Nutrient Requirements Omnivores Poultry and Swine

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri Columbia, Columbia, Missouri, U.S.A. Poultry and swine, which are fed in domestic animal production systems, are omnivores and consume and utilize feedstuffs of both animal- and plant-origin. Poultry includes chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and quail, each with distinctive differences in gut morphology and dietary habits. Their energy requirements are usually met by metabolism of dietary carbohydrates and lipids but may also come from...

Vagina

The vagina is the most posterior portion of the female reproductive system and includes the 1) anterior vagina extends from the external os cervix to anterior to the urethral opening and 2) vestibule extends from the urethral opening to the most posterior part of the vulva. Structures of the vagina include 1) the endometrium epithelium is low cuboidal in the luteal phase and stratified squamous during the follicular phase of the estrous or menstrual cycle and 2) the myometrium, with an inner...

Two Arms Of The Immune System Affected By Stress

Molecules such as cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, major histocompatability complexes (MHC), and antibodies link the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system (Fig. 2). The innate immune system provides the first line of immune defense and is composed primarily of neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Under nonstress conditions, these professional phagocytes gain rapid entry into infected tissues to clear pathogens by receptor-mediated phagocytosis, leading to the...

Hurdles To Xenotransplantation

The main hurdle to xenotransplantation is the immune reaction of the recipient against the graft (see Ref. 2 for a review). Much of the immune response is directed against Gala1-3Gal. Another problem with the pig is that the proteins of that species are so different from the proteins of humans that they too provoke strong immune reactions, thus increasing the challenge of developing an effective approach to immunosuppression. Still another hurdle to Table 2 Technologies for organ replacement...

Nutrient Requirements Nonruminant Herbivores

University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, U.S.A. Nonruminant herbivorous mammals include a small number of commercially important animals and a larger number of wild species. 1 Digestive strategies clearly differ among these herbivores. Mammals lack enzymes to hydrolyze a substantial portion of plant material (cell walls), but various pregastric (including ruminant) and postgastric microbial fermentation systems have evolved that enable herbivorous mammals to utilize fibrous...

Female Attractivity Proceptivity And Receptivity

Artificial insemination requires that humans, in lieu of conspecific males, detect estrus in females. 7 However, developing techniques to regulate timing of ovulation and artificial insemination might eliminate the need for managers to detect estrus in females in the near future. 8 Nevertheless, understanding the ethology and physiology of female sexual and social behavior can improve female fertility, health, and welfare. Attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity are three components of...

Poultry Manure Treatment And Utilization

Most poultry manure is used for crop and pasture fertilization as a cost-effective alternative to inorganic mineral fertilizer. Land application also recycles nutrients, enhances soil fertility, and improves soil physical properties. However, a balance must be maintained between maximum utilization of nutrients by crops and the risk of health and environmental impacts. Proper managing of poultry manure from its production through utilization is the key to maintaining this balance. This includes...

Probiotics For Poultry

The most widely studied livestock species with respect to the use of probiotics is poultry. Much of the attention in this area has been focused on the control of salmonella in chickens. Properly selected cultures of probiotics (such as Lactobacillus species) can overcome those lactobacilli found in the natural flora of the birds and exert inhibitory action toward salmonella in the intestinal tract of chickens. 5 Another approach has been to culture the intestinal bacterial flora from a healthy...

Pale Soft Exudative Pse And Porcine Stress Syndrome Pss In Pigs

An unusual condition occurs in pig muscle postmortem that is referred to as PSE. 5 The muscle is pale in color, soft in texture, and may exude as much as 10 of the muscle weight in liquid (also called drip) (Fig. 2). The condition is genetic in nature and has been linked to a recessive mutation in the ryanodine receptor. 6 The latter is a protein that serves as a calcium channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In normal muscle, this channel releases calcium to activate muscle contraction....

Mohair Biology and Characteristics

Texas A& M University, San Angelo, Texas, U.S.A. Mohair is the white, lustrous fiber produced by the Angora goat (capra hircus aegagrus). Most goat breeds have double coats (to highly variable degrees), consisting of an outer coat of coarse guard hairs and a relatively short undercoat of fine down that sheds annually. The practice from early times of selecting for white, wavy, lustrous, single-coated (i.e., no coarse guard hair) fleeces that do not shed eventually resulted in the...

Protein Digestion and Absorption

Except for the absorption of intact immunoglobulins by the small intestine of mammalian neonates, dietary proteins have no nutritional values until they are hydrolyzed to short-chain peptides and free amino acids in the digestive tract. In nonruminants, the digestion starts in the stomach (pH approximately 2 3), where protein is denatured by hydrochloric acid, followed by digestion with proteases (pepsins A, B, and C, and renin). The resulting large peptides enter the small intestine to be...

Ram Reproduction

Producers often forget that the ram contributes 50 of the genetic makeup of offspring, affecting not only production traits (birth weight, average daily gain), but also the reproductive traits of potential flock replacements (semen production, ovulation rate, onset of puberty, seasonality). The ram should be given special attention throughout the year, but especially in preparation for and during the breeding season. A veterinarian or owner who is prepared to perform a breeding soundness...

Physiology of Lactation

Department of Dairy and Animal Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Mammals undergo numerous metabolic and physiological adaptations as they make the transition from the pregnant to the lactating state. In the process, they are confronted with the challenge of maintaining maternal tissues, producing enough milk for the young (or for the farmer in the case of dairy species), and also preparing for the next pregnancy. This adaptation is evident as...

Info

Fig. 2 Summary of redesigning animal foods. years, and irradiation of animal-derived foods, which is increasing in popularity and acceptance. When genetic modification is considered, preharvest systems would include genetically altering animals or gut microbes to provide specific actions of interest, while postharvest techniques could include modifying food-processing microbes by using genetic engineering to optimize the contents of nutraceuticals in products. Two examples of preharvest genetic...

Bacterial Diseases

Major bacterial diseases of ducks are Riemerella anatipestifer infection, avian cholera, colibacillosis, and salmonellosis. Occasionally, erysipelas, chlamydiosis, streptococcosis, staphylococcosis, boltulism, and clostridial infections have been reported in ducks. Riemerella anatipestifer (previously called Pasteurella anatipestifer) infection is a major health problem of ducklings. 4 It causes serious economic losses to the duck industry due to mortality, weight reduction, and condemnation....

Well Being Assessment Physiological Criteria

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. There is no single valid measure of stress (or well-being). Nevertheless, we can use physiological variables to assist in validation. The hormone most often used for measuring well-being is cortisol, the product of the mammalian adrenal cortex. One also can measure the levels of hormones and metabolites that are affected by cortisol. The sympathetic nervous system is the other major source of reactions to stress, pain, or fright. There are two...

Stages Of The Estrous Cycle

Proestrus Concentration of progesterone in the blood declines to its lowest level following luteolysis (regression) of the corpora lutea (pl) in the sow or the single corpus luteum (CL) in the mare. 1-3 With regression and transformation of the corpus luteum to nonfunctional corpus albicans on the ovary, systemic blood concentration of progesterone declines, the block to final follicle growth is removed, and the Graafian follicle(s) is permitted to enlarge through stimulation by rising systemic...

Nutrition And Feeding

During the period 1994 1998, the feed efficiency ratio for Norwegian Atlantic salmon production was approximately 0.83 kg gain per kg dry feed. 4 The amounts of raw materials used for salmon feed production in Norway in 1999 and 2000 indicate that the average feed was made up of 40 fish meal and fish silage, 7 corn and wheat gluten, 6 various soybean products, 28 fish oil and 3 soybean oil, 12 wheat flour, and 4 vitamins, minerals, and pigment. 4 The optimal dietary protein level for salmon is...

Water Buffalo Reproduction Management

Department of Animal Husbandry, Cantho University, Can Tho, Vietnam Abstract In general reproductivity is better in the River buffalo compared to the Swamp buffalo and affected by many factors such as nutrition, management and environment. Artificial insemination and cross breeding are usually used to improve milk production and growth of the Swamp buffalo in many countries. Comprehensive studies of buffalo reproduction are necessary to manage and improve buffalo performance. In general,...

Nutrient Requirements Carnivores

Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A. Carnivores, broadly defined, sustain themselves by feeding on vertebrate or invertebrate animal tissues, a practice observed in both the animal and plant kingdoms. The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), one of over 500 carnivorous plant species, lives in humid, acidic bogs in the Carolinas and, like most plants, acquires energy and nutrients by photosynthesis and through the roots. In this environment, nitrogen and some mineral elements...

Eggs Composition and Structure

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. The avian egg is one of the richest and most balanced sources of nutrients among all of the foods available to mankind. Its biological function is to support the development of the embryo from fertilization to the emergence of the newly hatched chick. The structure of the egg is such that it maintains an aseptic ''milieu'' for embryonic development. It protects the embryo...

Shrubs And Trees

Shrubs are defined as any low-growing, woody plant that produces multiple stems. Leguminous trees are included in this category. Leucaena is the most widely used multipurpose tree legume in the tropics. 6 It is used as a high-quality livestock forage, fuelwood, and construction timber, and for soil stabilization and improving soil fertility. The nutritive value of Leucaena is good where it is used, and livestock production is increased over conventional pastures. Rate of adoption has been...

Maturity

The maturity of the carcass has shown to be highly correlated to tenderness of the meat upon cooking. 5 As cattle mature, they become tougher due to an increased amount of connective tissue and less soluble collagen. 5 Therefore, the maturity of the carcass is considered in determining a USDA Quality Grade. Maturity is divided into two categories skeletal maturity and lean maturity. The more important of the two is the skeletal or bone maturity, meaning that when there is a difference between...

Marketing Definedin The Broader Sense

Most people define egg marketing as the physical action of trading eggs for a fee between a producer packer and either a wholesaler or retailer. 1 Marketing, though, also includes a long list of associated activities including, but not limited to processing cleaning, grading, sizing, and packaging , regulatory supervision, buying and selling at several levels , transportation, balancing of surpluses with deficits, price discovery, price reporting, promotion advertising, and egg export import...

Homeorhetic Regulation of Metabolic Adaptations to Pregnancy

The concept of homeorhesis as it applies to regulation of nutrient partitioning was elaborated by Bauman and Currie 11 and, more recently, Bauman. 12 Examples of homeorhetic regulation in pregnant animals have been reviewed previously. 1,4 Several pregnancy-related hormones, including progesterone, estradiol, and placental lactogen PL have been suggested as homeorhetic modulators of observed changes in tissue responses to insulin and catecholamines, and associated metabolic adaptations to the...

Deer And Elk Antlers

Deer and elk antlers are true bone, with the velvet that envelops the growing antler being a modified extension of normal skin of the head. The growing antler is the fastest-growing postnatal bone known. The antlers grow from permanent bony structures, on the skull called pedicles. When antlers are shed, a small segment of the outer portion of the pedicle is lost. This shortens the outer, more than the inner, length of the pedicle, which causes the antler beams to have a greater and greater...

Harvesting Animal Fiber

Wild animals molt their pelage, usually once annually in spring, and the fiber can be gathered where it falls. Domestic species that molt may be harvested by plucking or combing, but those that do not must be shorn. 2 Shearing is skilled and physically demanding work, even with the development of machine-operated shears. Research to reduce the cost and effort in harvesting wool has focused on chemical defleecing and robotic shearing, but neither method is yet in practical use. Chemical...

Fatty Liver in Ruminants

The fat content of liver is normally less than 5 of the wet weight. Fatty liver is the condition arising from the progressive infiltration of fat into the liver lobule. Fat content in the liver may increase to 30 of wet weight. Fatty liver is often associated with conditions of undernutrition such as ketosis due to the central role of the liver in the metabolism of fat Fig. 1 . During undernutrition, increased release of NEFA from adipose tissue results in increased uptake of NEFA by liver. In...

Myostatin Physiology and Applications

Baile Mary Anne Della-Fera University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, U.S.A. Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle cell growth and the loss of functional myostatin is known to cause the double-muscled phenotype in several cattle breeds and in other species. With the advent of transgenic technology, researchers have created a knockout mouse model with which to efficiently explore the biochemical pathways and influences of myostatin. Research involving this model has both...

Bone Growth

Postnatal growth in length of long bones of the appendicular skeleton precedes growth in diameter. Growth in length involves both cartilage and bone cells. Chondroblasts continue to proliferate at the growth plate adjacent to the epiphysis to maintain this cartilage plate throughout the growth period. Chondro-blasts produce cartilage matrix materials but gradually differentiate into chondrocytes, which produce and maintain mature matrix. As more chondroblasts arise, and accompanying newly...

Gene Transfer Methods Pronuclear Microinjection

The primary method used to produce transgenic farm mammals has been the direct microinjection of the transgene into the pronucleus of a zygote recently fertilized ovum or egg . As in the mouse, pronuclei of rabbit, sheep, and goat zygotes can be readily seen using phase-contrast microscopy or differential interference contrast DIC microscopy. Lipid granules in the cytoplasm interfere with visualization of pronuclei in pig and cow zygotes. Centrifugation of pig and cow zygotes can be used to...

Sandhu T. S. 2003. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection In Disease Of Poultry

In Diseases of Poultry, 11th Ed. Saif, Y.M., Barnes, H.J., Glisson, J.R., Fadly, A.M., McDougald, L.R., Swayne, D.E., Eds. Iowa State Press Ames, 2003 343 354. 2. Sandhu, T.S. Shawky, S.A. Duck Virus Enteritis Duck Plague . In Diseases of Poultry, 11th Ed. Saif, Y.M., Barnes, H.J., Glisson, J.R., Fadly, A.M., McDougald, L.R., Swayne, D.E., Eds. Iowa State Press Ames, 2003 354 363. 3. Gough, R.E. Goose Parvovirus Infection. In Diseases of Poultry, 11th Ed. Saif,...

Behavior Aberrant

Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, U.S.A. Aberrant refers to something that deviates from the usual or natural type. Interchanged in the literature with the term aberrant is the term abnormal in reference to deviations from normal behaviors. Abnormal behavior has been defined as behavior ''that deviates in form, frequency, or sequence from a defined, comparable standard. Such a standard may be a behavioral inventory typical for a given genotype, age group, sex, nutritional level, housing...

Feedlot Cattle

Feedlot cattle are exposed to a variety of stressors, including abnormal behaviors such as buller-steer syndrome, difficulties in adjusting to and finding the provided diet, and effectively dealing with extreme temperatures. Buller-steer syndrome, or the abnormal occurrence of individual steers bullers to stand for mounting by others, has long been known to occur. However, the phenomenon appears to have increased with the development of feedlot systems. It can become a major problem as the...