Nutrient Requirements Ruminants

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Clay Center, Nebraska, U.S.A. Nutrient needs of tissues of ruminants are similar to those of nonruminants. Tissues of ruminants require oxygen, water, energy, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, and fat-and water-soluble vitamins. Dietary needs of ruminants are simpler and often cheaper than for nonruminants because of anaerobic microbial metabolism in the rumen. Microbial metabolism of dietary intake also increases the...

Poultry Manure Treatment And Utilization

Chicken Litter Storage Methane Alarm

Most poultry manure is used for crop and pasture fertilization as a cost-effective alternative to inorganic mineral fertilizer. Land application also recycles nutrients, enhances soil fertility, and improves soil physical properties. However, a balance must be maintained between maximum utilization of nutrients by crops and the risk of health and environmental impacts. Proper managing of poultry manure from its production through utilization is the key to maintaining this balance. This includes...

Nutrient Requirements Carnivores

Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A. Carnivores, broadly defined, sustain themselves by feeding on vertebrate or invertebrate animal tissues, a practice observed in both the animal and plant kingdoms. The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), one of over 500 carnivorous plant species, lives in humid, acidic bogs in the Carolinas and, like most plants, acquires energy and nutrients by photosynthesis and through the roots. In this environment, nitrogen and some mineral elements...

Obligate Vs Facultative Carnivores

Animals that eat only animal prey are sometimes called strict or obligate carnivores to distinguish them from facultative carnivores that eat mostly animal prey but also consume nonanimal foods. Felids are strict carnivores and, in the wild, obtain most of their food by predation on the tissues of mammals, birds, or fish. Their domestic representative, the cat (Felis catus), differs in several respects in its metabolism and nutrient requirements from the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), a canid...

Mammary Glands Hormonal Regulation

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. The mammary glands are fascinating organs that are designed to provide nutrients and immunological protection to the young. These glands are a microcosm of the organism in that they have a life cycle (Fig. 1), which proceeds with each subsequent pregnancy, parturition, and lactation. The first phase of the life cycle is mammogenesis or growth and development of the mammary gland. This includes the growth and proliferation of...