Absorption

The products of fat or lipid digestion are simpler molecules, e.g., monoacylglycerol (MAG=TAG with two FAs removed), FAs (removed from TAG, PL, and CE), C, lysophospholipids (PL with one FA removed), glycerol (from TAG, PL, and CE after removal of FAs), choline (from PL), etc. Enterocytes, cells lining the small intestine, absorb these molecules.[1,8,9] The enterocyte resynthesizes TAG, PL, and CE, which are secreted into the lymph; lymph enters the general circulation near the heart and bypasses the liver on the first circulatory pass. The portal circulation (the venous blood draining the viscera and with delivery directly to the liver) transports

Table 1 Lipoproteins

% of Total lipid

Table 1 Lipoproteins

% of Total lipid

Type

Site of synthesis

% Protein

Total % lipid

TAG

PL

C+CE FA

Chylomicrons

Gut

2

>95

88

8

4

VLDL

Liver, gut

7

>90

56

20

23

LDL

Plasma

20

80

13

28

58

HDL

Plasma, gut, liver

50

55

15

45

38

Albumin

Adipose tissue/plasma

99

1

100

Abbreviations: C cholesterol, CE cholesterol ester, FA fatty acid, HDL high density lipoprotein, LDL low density lipoprotein, PL phospholipid, TAG triacylglycerol, VLDL very low density lipoprotein. Adapted from Refs. 1 and 8.

Abbreviations: C cholesterol, CE cholesterol ester, FA fatty acid, HDL high density lipoprotein, LDL low density lipoprotein, PL phospholipid, TAG triacylglycerol, VLDL very low density lipoprotein. Adapted from Refs. 1 and 8.

the more hydrophilic components, e.g., glycerol, choline, and short-chain FAs.

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