Lewis and Leslie[6,7] provide classical presentations of an age-structured population, given rates for fecundity and mortality. Extension of these techniques describing the culling process as a Markov chain allows age distributions to be calculated for individuals remaining in a herd and those culled. Culling criteria and, consequently, necessitated replacement rates can be evaluated systematically using this approach for a variety of genetic resources and management systems. Parameters used in describing the age structure of populations can be estimated using survival analysis techniques that overcome issues of censoring and nonnormality of longevity data.
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