Animal Protein Sources General

For many years, animal by-products from the meat-, poultry-, and fish-processing industries have been used as a source of protein for food animal production. In general, animal protein sources contain highly digestible protein and their AA pattern is often similar to dietary needs. They are also an excellent source of many vitamins and minerals. Animal protein sources are, however, more variable than plant sources in terms of the nutrient content and quality because of the source of raw materials and heat processing used for dehydration and sterilization. Since the first diagnosis in the mid 1980s, there has been

Table 2 Composition of selected protein sources (% or Mcal/kg for ME and NE, data on DM basis)

Protein source

DM

CP

Ru UP

ME (Sw)

MEn (Po)

NEm (Ru)

NEg (Ru)

Eth Ex

Ca

P

Alfalfa meal, dehy, 17% CP

91.5

18.9

36.3

1.79

1.30

1.31

0.74

2.8

1.55

0.26

Alfalfa meal, dehy, 20% CP

92.0

21.5

2.05

1.77

3.8

1.78

0.30

Blood meal, conventional

91.7

89.8

74.2

2.55

3.01

2.00

1.34

1.6

0.42

0.34

Blood meal, spray/ring dried

93.0

95.5

3.17

3.68

1.2

0.44

0.32

Canola meal, mech ext

86.2

39.4

31.2

1.74

1.13

4.4

0.73

1.15

Canola meal, sol ext

91.5

40.2

2.93

2.15

4.0

0.72

1.19

Copra meal, sol ext

92.0

22.3

2.79

1.66

2.8

0.18

0.67

Corn gluten feed, dried

89.9

23.7

27.0

2.89

1.94

1.91

1.27

3.4

0.21

0.94

Corn gluten meal, 60% CP

88.7

66.8

69.2

4.26

4.13

2.37

1.66

2.8

0.06

0.56

Cottonseed meal, mech ext

92.5

45.0

2.92

2.49

5.4

0.25

1.12

Cottonseed meal, sol ext

90.2

45.8

43.8

2.57

2.67

1.82

1.20

1.8

0.19

1.14

Feather meal, hydrolyzed

93.2

88.9

63.8

2.67

2.54

1.93

1.29

6.1

0.56

0.58

Fish meal, herring, mech ext

93.0

75.5

3.51

3.43

10.3

2.52

1.86

Fish meal, menhad, mech ext

91.7

67.3

62.5

3.65

3.07

2.09

1.41

10.4

5.50

3.16

Fish solubles, dried

92.0

69.5

3.31

3.08

9.1

0.97

1.57

Linseed meal, sol ext

90.2

35.0

48.0

3.01

1.48

1.10

1.9

0.42

0.88

Meat and bone meal, rend

93.3

54.6

54.8

2.39

2.31

1.71

1.09

11.0

10.81

5.19

Meat meal, rend

93.4

58.1

44.4

2.76

2.39

1.98

1.32

11.0

8.79

4.28

Milk, skim, dried

96.0

36.0

3.87

0.9

1.36

1.04

Peanut meal, mech ext

91.0

46.8

3.87

2.78

7.6

0.18

0.63

Peanut meal, sol ext

92.2

53.3

11.2

3.53

2.39

2.00

1.35

1.6

0.24

0.67

Plasma protein, spray dried

91.0

85.7

2.2

0.16

1.88

Poult by product meal, rend

93.0

66.7

3.08

3.17

13.8

4.01

2.21

Safflower meal, dehu, sol ext

92.0

46.5

3.16

2.09

1.4

0.39

1.41

Safflower meal, sol ext

92.5

26.6

31.2

2.36

1.30

1.27

0.70

1.8

0.37

0.78

Sesame meal, mech ext

93.0

46.5

3.26

2.38

7.5

2.09

1.39

Soybean meal, dehu, sol ext

89.9

53.6

36.7

3.76

2.71

2.26

1.57

1.7

0.33

0.72

Soybean meal, sol ext

89.1

49.6

29.5

3.57

2.51

2.18

1.50

1.4

0.37

0.72

Soybean protein iso/conc

92.5

91.8

3.87

3.76

0.5

0.09

0.78

Soybeans, heat processed

90.3

41.1

34.3

4.10

3.67

2.54

1.80

19.7

0.27

0.65

Sunflower meal, dehu, sol ext

92.8

47.1

20.0

2.94

2.49

1.47

0.88

3.0

0.42

1.06

Sunflower meal, sol ext

90.7

31.2

13.9

2.03

1.71

1.49

0.92

1.4

0.37

1.00

Whey, dried

94.5

13.3

3.32

2.04

0.9

0.91

0.78

Whey, low lactose, dried

93.5

18.0

3.03

2.30

1.1

2.11

1.25

Yeast, brewer's, dried

93.0

48.5

3.25

2.14

1.5

0.15

1.53

Yeast, torula, dehy

93.0

50.3

2.97

2.32

2.6

0.62

1.72

(From Refs. 5 9.) ME metabolizable energy; NE net energy; DM dry matter; CP crude protein; Ru UP luminal undegradable protein, % CP; ME (Sw) ME for swine; ME (Po) N corrected ME for poultry; NEm & NEg (Ru) NE for maintenance & growth for ruminants; Eth Ex ether extract; dehy dehydrated; mech ext mechanically extracted; sol ext solvent extracted; menhad menhaden; rend rendered; Poult poultry; dehu dehulled; iso/conc isolate/concentrate. Dash no available data.

(From Refs. 5 9.) ME metabolizable energy; NE net energy; DM dry matter; CP crude protein; Ru UP luminal undegradable protein, % CP; ME (Sw) ME for swine; ME (Po) N corrected ME for poultry; NEm & NEg (Ru) NE for maintenance & growth for ruminants; Eth Ex ether extract; dehy dehydrated; mech ext mechanically extracted; sol ext solvent extracted; menhad menhaden; rend rendered; Poult poultry; dehu dehulled; iso/conc isolate/concentrate. Dash no available data.

some impact of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) on the food animal industries in many countries. In light of BSE, regulations on the use of some animal protein sources may differ depending on the country, species, or product, and they are subject to change.

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