Biologicals

Serum, vaccines, antigens, and antitoxins are derived from many food-animal tissues acquired both during the slaughter and processing of and by primary extraction from hyperimmunized animals. The true biologicals serve as preventive and treatment regimes in both humans and animals and are primarily derived from blood. Other animal tissues have been primary for the replication of cell-culture vaccines. Biotechnology continues to alter vaccine production processes, but animal by-products and their extractions are still important components. Purified animal blood is fractionated into many vital end products for numerous medical applications. Examples include thrombin, which is used for blood coagulation agents and skin graft procedures, fibrin used in surgical repair of internal organs, and fibrinolysin, an enzyme used to assist digestive and vaginal infections, as well as for wound cleaning agents.

Biological applications extend into uses for numerous pharmaceuticals, neutraceuticals, nutritional supplements, glandular extracts, and enzymes. Tissue implants, hormones, organs, glands, and tissue meats are considered to possess specific custom or health benefits. Other than heart, tongue, liver, kidney, pancreas/thymus (sweetbread), brain, stomach (tripe), and intestines that are used as food, all other noncarcass material, though edible biologically, is generally referenced as by-product tissue.

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