The cervix connects the uterine body and the vagina. In ruminants, the cervix contains connective tissue ridges called annular rings, but the mare has none, and in pigs they are interwinding and interdigitating. The internal and external os cervix are the anterior and posterior openings of the cervix.

Histology of the cervix

Structures of the cervic include: 1) the endometrium columnar epithelium and goblet cells that secrete mucus; 2) the myometrium smooth muscle cells, not in distinct layers; and 3) connective tissue dense fibrous tissue forming interlocking annular rings.

Functions of the cervix

The cervix serves: 1) as the site of semen deposition and sperm transport in some species; 2) as a barrier to

transport of abnormal sperm; 3) as the site for maximum sperm longevity; 4) to seal the cervix with a mucus plug during pregnancy to prevent uterine contamination; and 5) to dilate during parturition to allow the birth process.

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