Chloramphenicol and florfenicol affect protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibiting the peptidyltransferase step. Resistance to chloramphenicol can be mediated by inactivation of the antibiotic by an acetyltransferase, but these enzymes are typically inactive against florfenicol. Bacteria can also alter the cell membrane to reduce the uptake of chloramphenicol and florfenicol, or use an active efflux pump system to remove the antibiotic from the cytoplasm.
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