In mammalian but not avian species, the dietary need for choline can be replaced by excess methionine. In crystalline form, choline chloride (74.6% choline) is hygroscopic, and therefore it is considered a stress agent to other vitamins in a vitamin-mineral premix. Crystalline choline is considered quite stable in animal feeds and premixes. Crude plant oils (e.g., corn and soybean oil) contain choline as phospholipid-bound phosphatidyl choline. The bioavailability of choline in this form is at least 100%.[4] Refined plant oils generally have been subjected to alkaline treatment and bleaching, and these processes almost totally remove phospholipids, including phospholipid-bound choline.

Choline bioavailability (relative to crystalline choline chloride) in oilseed meals for chicks has been estimated at 83% in soybean meal, 76% in peanut meal, and only 24% in canola meal.[2] Also in chicks, excess dietary protein has been observed to markedly increase the dietary requirement for choline.

Psychology Of Weight Loss And Management

Psychology Of Weight Loss And Management

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At The Psychology Of Weight Loss And Management. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Exploring How Your Brain Plays A Role In Weight Loss And Management.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment