Conclusion

Inadequate mineral nutrition severely limits livestock production. Typical livestock diets frequently contain inadequate concentrations of required minerals. The most efficient method of providing supplemental minerals is through the use of mineral supplements combined with concentrates. This system cannot be used with grazing ruminants that receive few concentrates. Often, grazing livestock receive minerals as a free-choice complete mixture. Mineral supplements need to be compared and evaluated in relation to composition of elements, bio-availability, source of toxic elements, palatability, and mixing properties. Mineral manufacturers are responsible for providing quality control products.

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