Conclusion

Knowledge of the endocrine changes during the estrous cycle of the sow and mare allows an understanding of the behavioral patterns during the various stages of the estrous cycle. With regression of the CL and decline of progesterone, estrogen from maturing Graafian follicles promotes the physical and behavioral expression patterns that are utilized to determine the proper timing of breeding. A complete understanding of characteristics for typical estrous behavior in the sow and mare is especially important when utilizing artificial insemination (AI). Utilization of ultrasonography has assisted in determining the time of ovulation in the mare. Research continues to explore methods to accurately predict or induce ovulation for optimal breeding.

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