Conclusion

This article provides a brief review of digestion and absorption of nutrients. Comparisons of the digestive system among various farm animals are provided in ''GI tract: Anatomical and functional comparison.''1-4-1 A detailed description of the pig's digestive system has been published.[5] A monograph[6] has also discussed comparative anatomy and physiology of the digestive system in major groups of vertebrates. The two major challenges facing animal agriculture are manure disposal and odor control. These environmental concerns are created primarily by the inefficiency in digestion, absorption, and metabolism of dietary nutrients by the animal and oversupply of nutrients in the diet to maximize individual animal performance. To be environmentally friendly and socially responsible, animal research should be directed toward improving digestive and metabolic efficiency of dietary nutrient utilization by the animal, optimizing the accretion of wholesome, nutritious, and tasteful animal products, and minimizing nutrient excretion and odor emission.

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